Пачкова С.П. Зарубинецкая культура и латенизированные культуры Европы. 3.6. Хронология иMessage 1 of 2 , Jan 23, 2012View SourceÐÐ°ÑÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð° Ð¡.Ð.
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Ð¥ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ñ Ð¸ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸Ñ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð·Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð½ÑÑ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑ Ñ ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐ° 50-Ñ Ð³Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð² Ð±Ð°Ð·Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð»Ð¸ÑÑ Ð½Ð° Ð°Ð±ÑÐ¾Ð»ÑÑÐ½ÑÑ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ°Ñ Ð¸ÑÑÐ¾ÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð² ÑÐ°Ð·Ð²Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ñ ÐºÐµÐ»ÑÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÐ¸Ð²Ð¸Ð»Ð¸Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð¸, ÑÐ°Ð·ÑÐ°Ð±Ð¾ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÑÑ ÑÐµÑÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼ ÑÑÐµÐ½ÑÐ¼ Ð¯. Ð¤Ð¸Ð»Ð¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð¼, Ð¸ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÐ¸ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð¸, ÑÐ¾Ð·Ð´Ð°Ð½Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¿ÑÑÐµÐ¼ ÐºÐ¾ÑÑÐµÐ»ÑÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð¾Ð² Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¾Ð² Ð¡ÐµÐ²ÐµÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¸ Ð¡ÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ¹ ÐÐ²ÑÐ¾Ð¿Ñ Ð½ÐµÐ¼ÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼ Ð¸ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð°ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ¼ Ð . Ð¥Ð°Ñ Ð¼Ð°Ð½Ð½Ð¾Ð¼ [Filip 1956; Hachmann 1961]. Ð'ÑÐµ Ð°Ð±ÑÐ¾Ð»ÑÑÐ½ÑÐµ Ð´Ð°ÑÑ Ð¾ÐºÐ°Ð·Ð°Ð»Ð¸ÑÑ Ð¾Ð¼Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð½Ð° 50â"100 Ð»ÐµÑ Ð¿Ð¾ ÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ñ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´Ð»Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð² Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ðµ Ð½Ð°ÑÐµÐ³Ð¾ Ð²ÐµÐºÐ° Ð. Ð ÐµÐ¹Ð½ÐµÐºÐµ, Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐºÐ¾Ð»ÑÐºÑ ÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ð´ÑÑÐ²Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð»Ð¸ÑÑ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð½ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð¼ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð²ÐºÐ¸ Â«Ð¿Ð¾ ÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ¹ Ð²ÐµÑÐ¸Â», ÑÑÐ¾ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð²ÐµÐ»Ð¾ Ðº ÑÐ´Ð²Ð¸Ð³Ñ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð²Ð²ÐµÑÑ [Ð©ÑÐºÐ¸Ð½ 1993, Ñ. 75].
ÐÑÐ¾ Ð¾ÑÑÐµÑÐ»Ð¸Ð²Ð¾ Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÐ²Ð¸Ð»Ð¾ÑÑ Ð² ÑÐ°Ð±Ð¾ÑÐ°Ñ Ð¼Ð½Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ñ Ð°ÑÑ ÐµÐ¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¾Ð², Ð² ÑÐ¾Ð¼ ÑÐ¸ÑÐ»Ðµ Ð¸ ÑÐµÑ , ÐºÑÐ¾ Ð·Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ð¼Ð°Ð»ÑÑ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð±Ð»ÐµÐ¼Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ [ÐÑÑ Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾ 1964; ÐÐ°ÑÐ¸Ð½ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ 1963; 1966; ÐÐ¼Ð±ÑÐ¾Ð· 1966 Ð¸ Ð´Ñ.]. ÐÐ°Ðº ÑÐ»ÐµÐ´ÑÑÐ²Ð¸Ðµ, Ð²ÑÑÐ²Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ÑÑ Ð½ÐµÑÐ²ÑÐ·ÐºÐ¸ Ð² Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð²ÐºÐ°Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¾Ð² Ð¿Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°Ð¼ Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¹ Ð¿Ð¾ ÐºÐ»ÐµÐ¹Ð¼Ð°Ð¼ Ð°Ð½ÑÐ¸ÑÐ½ÑÑ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾Ñ. ÐÐµÑÐ¾Ð¾ÑÐ²ÐµÑÑÑÐ²Ð¸Ñ Ð²Ð¾Ð·Ð½Ð¸ÐºÐ°Ð»Ð¸ Ð¸ Ð¿ÑÐ¸ ÑÐ°Ð·ÑÐ°Ð±Ð¾ÑÐºÐ°Ñ Ð»Ð¾ÐºÐ°Ð»ÑÐ½ÑÑ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ ÑÑ ÐµÐ¼ Ð² Ð´ÑÑÐ³Ð¸Ñ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð·Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð½ÑÑ ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐµÐ²ÑÐ¾Ð¿ÐµÐ¹ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐ°Ñ . Ð'ÑÑÐ°Ð»Ð° Ð½ÐµÐ¾Ð±Ñ Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ð¼Ð¾ÑÑÑ Ð¾ÑÑÑÐºÐ°Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð²Ð¾Ð·Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶Ð½Ð¾ÑÑÐµÐ¹ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ¾Ð´Ð¾Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ ÑÑÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÐ¸ÑÑÐ°ÑÐ¸Ð¸.
Ð¡Ð¾Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐµ ÑÐ°Ð·ÑÐ°Ð±Ð¾ÑÐºÐ¸ Ð°Ð±ÑÐ¾Ð»ÑÑÐ½ÑÑ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ðº Ð¾Ð¿Ð¸ÑÐ°ÑÑÑÑ Ð½Ð° ÑÐµÐ·ÑÐ»ÑÑÐ°ÑÑ Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð´ÑÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð°Ð½Ð°Ð»Ð¸Ð·Ð¾Ð² Ð¸Ð· ÑÐ°ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¿Ð¾Ðº Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¸ ÐºÐµÐ»ÑÑÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿Ð°Ð¼ÑÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¾Ð². ÐÐ¾Ð»ÑÑÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐµ Ð´Ð°ÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð²Ð¾Ð»Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾Ð´ÐºÐ¾ÑÑÐµÐºÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°ÑÑ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ñ ÑÑÐ´Ð° ÐºÐ°ÑÐµÐ³Ð¾ÑÐ¸Ð¹ Ð½Ð°Ñ Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ðº Ð¸Ð· Ð¿Ð°Ð¼ÑÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¾Ð² ÐÑÐ°Ð»Ð¸Ð¸, Ð'Ð¾ÑÑÐ¾ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ ÐÐ´ÑÐ¸Ð°ÑÐ¸ÐºÐ¸ Ð¸ Ð¼ÐµÐ¶Ð´ÑÑÐµÑÑÑ Ð ÐµÐ¹Ð½Ð° Ð¸ ÐÐ°Ð¹Ð½Ð°. ÐÐ¾ ÑÑÑÐ¸, ÑÐ¸ÑÑÐµÐ¼Ð° Ð. Ð ÐµÐ¹Ð½ÐµÐºÐµ Ð±ÑÐ»Ð° Ð½Ðµ ÑÐ¾Ð»ÑÐºÐ¾ Ð²Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ°Ð½Ð¾Ð²Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð°, Ð½Ð¾ Ð²Ð¾ Ð¼Ð½Ð¾Ð³Ð¾Ð¼ Ð´ÐµÑÐ°Ð»Ð¸Ð·Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð° Ð¸ ÑÑÐ¾ÑÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð° [Haffner 1974, S. 59; 1979, S. 405; Stockli 1979, S. 270; Polenz 1982, S. 27]. ÐÐµÑÐ²ÑÐµ Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¸ Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð²ÑÐµÐ¹ÑÑ Ð² ÐÐ²ÑÐ¾Ð¿Ðµ Ð¿ÐµÑÐµÐ¾ÑÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¸ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÐºÐ°Ð»Ñ Ð¯. Ð¤Ð¸Ð»Ð¸Ð¿Ð° Ð¸ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð . Ð¥Ð°Ñ Ð¼Ð°Ð½Ð½Ð° Ð½Ð°ÑÐ»Ð¸ Ð¾ÑÑÐ°Ð¶ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ Ð² ÑÐ°Ð±Ð¾ÑÐµ Ð. Ð"Ð¾Ð»Ð´Ð¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ [GodÅowski 1977].
Ð' ÑÐ¾Ð¾ÑÐ²ÐµÑÑÑÐ²Ð¸Ð¸ Ñ Ð¿ÐµÑÐµÑÐ¼Ð¾ÑÑÐ¾Ð¼ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ³Ð¾ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð° ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐµÐ²ÑÐ¾Ð¿ÐµÐ¹ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ ÑÐµÑÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¸Ð¹, Ð±ÑÐ»Ð¸ Ð²Ð½ÐµÑÐµÐ½Ñ Ð½ÐµÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµ ÐºÐ¾ÑÑÐµÐºÑÐ¸Ð²Ñ Ð¸ Ð² Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ ÐÐ¾Ð»ÐµÑÑÑ [ÐÐ°ÑÐ¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð° 1984, Ñ. 108â"118]. ÐÐ°Ð¸Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÐµÐµ Ð¶Ðµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð½ÑÑ ÑÐ°Ð±Ð¾ÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð½Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¸Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð²ÐµÑÐµÐ¹ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÑÐ¸Ð»Ñ Ð¸Ð· Ð°ÑÑ ÐµÐ¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿Ð°Ð¼ÑÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¾Ð² Ð'Ð¾ÑÑÐ¾ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ ÐÐ²ÑÐ¾Ð¿Ñ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð²ÐµÐ»Ð¸ Ð. Ð`. Ð©ÑÐºÐ¸Ð½ Ð¸ Ð'. Ð. ÐÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾ [Shchukin 1989; Ð©ÑÐºÐ¸Ð½ 1993, Ñ. 75â"84; ÐÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾, Ð©ÑÐºÐ¸Ð½ 1992, Ñ. 80â"114].
Ð¥ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð°, Ð³Ð»Ð°Ð²Ð½ÑÐ¼ Ð¾Ð±ÑÐ°Ð·Ð¾Ð¼, Ð½Ð° Ð´Ð¾ÑÑÐ°ÑÐ¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ ÑÐ·ÐºÐ¾ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÐµÐ¼ÑÑ ÐºÐ»ÐµÐ¹Ð¼Ð°Ñ Ð½Ð° Ð¾Ð±Ð»Ð¾Ð¼ÐºÐ°Ñ Ð°Ð½ÑÐ¸ÑÐ½ÑÑ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾Ñ, Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÑ Ð½Ð° Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸ÑÑ Ð¡ÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ³Ð¾ ÐÐ¾Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ¿ÑÐ¾Ð²ÑÑ. Ð'Ð°Ð¶Ð½ÑÐ¼ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼ ÑÐµÐ¿ÐµÑÐ¾Ð¼ ÑÐ²Ð»ÑÑÑÑÑ ÑÐ°ÐºÐ¶Ðµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµ Ð² Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÑÑÐ¾Ð¼ ÐºÐ¾Ð»Ð¸ÑÐµÑÑÐ²Ðµ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð¸ÑÑ Ð¾Ð´ÑÑ Ð¸Ð· Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¾Ð² Ð¸ Ð² Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÑÑÐµÐ¹ ÑÑÐµÐ¿ÐµÐ½Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¹ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ. Ð"ÑÑÐ³Ð¸Ðµ Ð½Ð°Ñ Ð¾Ð´ÐºÐ¸ (Ð°Ð½ÑÐ¸ÑÐ½Ð°Ñ ÑÑÐ¾Ð»Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ñ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÐ´Ð°, Ð¾Ð±Ð»Ð¾Ð¼ÐºÐ¸ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾Ñ Ð±ÐµÐ· ÐºÐ»ÐµÐ¹Ð¼, Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÐ½ÑÐµ Ð³Ð°ÑÐ½Ð¸ÑÑÑÑ, ÑÐ°Ð·Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ½ÑÐµ Ð²Ð¸Ð´Ñ ÑÐºÑÐ°ÑÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¹ Ð¸ Ñ. Ð´.) Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÑÑÑÑ, ÐºÐ°Ðº Ð¿ÑÐ°Ð²Ð¸Ð»Ð¾, Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÐµÐµ ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾ÐºÐ¾ Ð¸ Ð¸Ð³ÑÐ°ÑÑ, Ð² Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð²Ð½Ð¾Ð¼, Ð²ÑÐ¿Ð¾Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð°ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ½ÑÑ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÑÑ ÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ ÑÐ»ÑÐ¶Ð°Ñ Ð´Ð»Ñ ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾ÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ðº.
Ð¥ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ Ð³ÑÐ°Ð½Ð¸ÑÑ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð¸ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð°ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð¾Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾-ÑÐ°Ð·Ð½Ð¾Ð¼Ñ Ð¸, Ð² Ð¾Ð±ÑÐµÐ¼, ÑÐºÐ»Ð°Ð´ÑÐ²Ð°ÑÑÑÑ Ð² Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´ Ð¾Ñ ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐ° 3 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð´Ð¾ ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐ° 2 Ð². Ð½. Ñ. ÐÐ´Ð½Ð°ÐºÐ¾ Ð°Ð½Ð°Ð»Ð¸Ð· ÑÐµÐ°Ð»ÑÐ½ÑÑ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÑÑÐ¸Ñ Ð²ÐµÑÐµÐ¹ Ð² Ð¿Ð°Ð¼ÑÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ°Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð»ÑÐºÐ¾ ÑÑÐ¶Ð°ÐµÑ ÑÑÐ¸ ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾ÐºÐ¸Ðµ ÑÐ°Ð¼ÐºÐ¸. Ð"Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÑÑÐ¸Ðµ Ð²ÐµÑÐ¸ Ð¸Ð· Ð¿Ð°Ð¼ÑÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¾Ð² Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾ ÑÑÐ¸Ð»ÐµÐ²ÑÐ¼ Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð±ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¼ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÑÑÑ Ðº ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ñ Ð¸ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ñ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð¸.
ÐÐ¾ Ð´Ð°Ð½Ð½ÑÐ¼ Ð. Ð'. ÐÐ°ÐºÑÐ¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð²Ð°, Ð½Ð° 18 Ð¿ÑÐ½ÐºÑÐ°Ñ Ð¡ÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ³Ð¾ ÐÐ¾Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ¿ÑÐ¾Ð²ÑÑ Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸ÐºÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ñ Ð¾Ð±Ð»Ð¾Ð¼ÐºÐ¸ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÑÐ»Ð»Ð¸Ð½Ð¸ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾Ñ Ð¸ Ð½Ð° 11 â" ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ [1972, Ñ. 112]. ÐÐ· Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½Ð¸Ñ ÑÐ»Ð»Ð¸Ð½Ð¸ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð½Ð°Ð¸Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÐµÐµ ÑÐ°ÑÑÐ¾ Ð²ÑÑÑÐµÑÐ°ÑÑÑÑ Ð¾Ð±Ð»Ð¾Ð¼ÐºÐ¸ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾Ñ Ñ Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¾Ð²Ð° ÐÐ¾Ñ Ð¸ Ð² Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÑÑÐµÐ¼ ÐºÐ¾Ð»Ð¸ÑÐµÑÑÐ²Ðµ Ð¸Ð· Ð´ÑÑÐ³Ð¸Ñ ÑÐµÐ½ÑÑÐ¾Ð² â" Ð Ð¾Ð´Ð¾ÑÐ°, Ð¤Ð°ÑÐ¾ÑÐ°, ÐÐ°ÑÐ¾ÑÐ° Ð¸ Ð¡Ð¸Ð½Ð¾Ð¿Ñ. ÐÐ°Ð¸Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÐµÐµ Ð¸Ð½ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐ¸Ð²Ð½Ð¾ ÐºÐ¾ÑÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾ÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¿Ð°Ð»Ð¸ Ð² Ð¡ÐµÐ²ÐµÑÐ½Ð¾Ðµ ÐÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¼Ð¾ÑÑÐµ Ð²Ð¾ Ð²ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð¹ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð²Ð¸Ð½Ðµ 3 Ð². Ð¸ 2 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð¸ Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð»ÑÐºÐ¾ Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÑÑÐµ Ð² Ð¿ÐµÑÐ²Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð²Ð¸Ð½Ðµ 1 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. [ÐÐµÐµÑÑ 1960, Ñ. 104]. Ð¡Ð¸Ð½Ð¾Ð¿ÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾ÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¿Ð°Ð»Ð¸ Ð½Ð° Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ Ð²ÑÐµÐ³Ð¾ ÑÐ»Ð»Ð¸Ð½Ð¸ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð° Ð²Ð¿Ð»Ð¾ÑÑ Ð´Ð¾ Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ð° 1 Ð². Ð½. Ñ. ÐÐ¼Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑ Ð¶Ðµ Ñ Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¾Ð²Ð° Ð¤Ð°ÑÐ¾Ñ Ð¿ÑÐµÐºÑÐ°ÑÐ¸Ð»ÑÑ Ð² Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ðµ 2 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. [ÐÐµÐµÑÑ 1960, Ñ. 21]. ÐÑÐ¾Ð´ÑÐºÑÐ¸Ñ Ð Ð¾Ð´Ð¾ÑÐ°, ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð»Ð°ÑÐ½Ð¾ Ð°Ð½Ð°Ð»Ð¸Ð·Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ Ð¾Ð±ÑÑÐ°Ð½Ð¾Ð²ÐºÐ¸ Ð² Ð³ÑÐµÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ°Ñ Ð² 3â"2 Ð²Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ., Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð»Ð° Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¿Ð°ÑÑ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ¸Ð¼ÑÑÐµÑÑÐ²ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾ Ð² Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ðµ 2 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. [ÐÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾ 1992, Ñ. 22â"23]. Ð ÑÑÐ±ÐµÐ¶Ñ 3/2 Ð²Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÐ¸Ð»Ð° Ð¿Ð¸Ðº Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¿Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð´Ð¾ÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð²Ð¸Ð½Ð° Ð² Ð¡ÐµÐ²ÐµÑÐ½Ð¾Ðµ ÐÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¼Ð¾ÑÑÐµ Ð¸ Ð. Ð`. ÐÐµÐµÑÑ [1960, ÑÐ¸Ñ. 2].
Ð' ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ðµ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð² ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐµ 1 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½.Ñ. â" 1 Ð². Ð½. Ñ. Ð½Ð°Ð±Ð»ÑÐ´Ð°ÐµÑÑÑ Ð¾Ð¶Ð¸Ð²Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐ¹ Ð¿ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ðº Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾Ñ, Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐ¾Ð¼ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð¸Ð·Ð²Ð¾Ð´ÑÑÐ²Ð° ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÑ Ð±ÑÐ»Ð¾ Ð®Ð¶Ð½Ð¾Ðµ ÐÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¼Ð¾ÑÑÐµ [ÐÐµÐµÑÑ 1960, Ñ. 108]. ÐÐ¾ Ð. Ð'. ÐÐ°ÐºÑÐ¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð²Ñ, Ð¸Ð· 22 Ð¿ÑÐ½ÐºÑÐ¾Ð², Ð³Ð´Ðµ Ð¾ÑÐ¼ÐµÑÐµÐ½ Ð°Ð½ÑÐ¸ÑÐ½ÑÐ¹ Ð¸Ð¼Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑ, Ð½Ð° ÑÐµÐ¼Ð¸ Ð²ÑÑÑÐµÑÐ°Ð»ÑÑ Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÑÐ»Ð»Ð¸Ð½Ð¸ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹, Ð¸ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð» â" Ð½Ð° Ð³Ð¾ÑÐµ ÐÐ¸ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ²ÐºÐ°, Ð² Ð¥Ð¾Ð´Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð²Ðµ, ÐÐ°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÑÐ°Ñ (ÐÐ°Ð»Ð°Ñ Ð"Ð¾ÑÐºÐ°), Ð½Ð° Ð`Ð°Ð±Ð¸Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð"Ð¾ÑÐµ (Ð`ÑÑÐ°Ðº), ÐÐ¸Ð»Ð¸Ð¿ÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ð¹ Ð"Ð¾ÑÐµ, Ð² ÐÐ°Ð±Ð¾ÑÐ¸Ð½Ðµ, Ð¡ÑÐ±Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð²Ðµ. ÐÑÐ»Ð¸ Ð² ÐÐ°Ð±Ð¾ÑÐ¸Ð½Ðµ Ð¸ ÐÐ°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÑÐ°Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÑÐ»Ð»Ð¸Ð½Ð¸ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð° Ð±ÑÐ»Ð¾ Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÑÑÐµ, ÑÐµÐ¼ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾, ÑÐ¾ Ð½Ð° ÐÐ¸Ð»Ð¸Ð¿ÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ð¹ Ð"Ð¾ÑÐµ â" Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð¼ÐµÑÐ½Ð¾ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð½Ñ, Ð° Ð² Ð¡ÑÐ±Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð²Ðµ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð±ÑÐ»Ð¾ Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÑÑÐµ, ÑÐµÐ¼ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ³Ð¾ ÑÐ»Ð»Ð¸Ð½Ð¸ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ [1972, Ñ. 95].
Ð¢Ð°ÐºÐ¸Ð¼ Ð¾Ð±ÑÐ°Ð·Ð¾Ð¼, Ð¿Ð¾ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¼Ñ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð¡ÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ³Ð¾ ÐÐ¾Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ¿ÑÐ¾Ð²ÑÑ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÑÑÑÑ Ð¾Ñ Ð²ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð¹ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð²Ð¸Ð½Ñ 3 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð¿Ð¾ 1 Ð². Ð½. Ñ. Ð²ÐºÐ»ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ½Ð¾. ÐÐ¾ Ð½Ð°Ñ Ð¾Ð´ÐºÐ¸ ÐºÐ»ÐµÐ¹Ð¼ Ð½Ð° Ð¾Ð±Ð»Ð¾Ð¼ÐºÐ°Ñ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾Ñ ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÐºÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð·Ð¸ÑÑÑÑ ÑÑÐ¸ ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾ÐºÐ¸Ðµ ÑÐ°Ð¼ÐºÐ¸. ÐÐ° ÐÐ¸Ð»Ð¸Ð¿ÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ð¹ Ð"Ð¾ÑÐµ Ð² ÑÐ¼Ðµ-Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±Ðµ â 32 Ð¶Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ° â 18 Ð±ÑÐ» Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½ ÑÑÐ°Ð³Ð¼ÐµÐ½Ñ Ð²ÐµÐ½ÑÐ¸ÐºÐ° Ð¸ Ð´Ð²ÑÑÑÐ²Ð¾Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÑÑÐºÐ¸ ÐºÐ¾ÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾ÑÑ Ñ ÐºÐ»ÐµÐ¹Ð¼Ð¾Ð¼, ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ¸Ð¼ Ð¸Ð· Ð¾Ð´Ð½Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¾ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð½Ð°Ð´Ð¿Ð¸ÑÐ¸ Î`Î¡ÎÎÎÎÎ"ÎÎ£. ÐÐ¾ Ð¾Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð`. Ð. Ð"ÑÐ°ÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð°, ÑÑÐ¾ ÐºÐ»ÐµÐ¹Ð¼Ð¾ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÐµÑÑÑ 230â"220 Ð³Ð³. Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. ÐÐ° ÐÐ¸Ð»Ð¸Ð¿ÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ð¹ Ð"Ð¾ÑÐµ Ð¾Ð±Ð»Ð¾Ð¼ÐºÐ¸ ÐºÐ¾ÑÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾Ñ Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐ½Ð¾ Ñ Ð¾Ð±Ð»Ð¾Ð¼ÐºÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐ°ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾Ñ Ð² Ð¶Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ°Ñ â2, 4, 6, 15, 18, 22, 34. ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐ¾Ð¼Ñ Ð¸ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð°ÑÐµÐ»Ñ Ð¿Ð°Ð¼ÑÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ° ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐ°ÐµÑ, ÑÑÐ¾ ÑÑÐ¸ Ð¾Ð±ÑÐµÐºÑÑ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÑÑÑÑ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐ¼, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ¹ ÑÐ¾Ð¾ÑÐ²ÐµÑÑÑÐ²ÑÐµÑ ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¿Ð°Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ ÑÐ°ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¸ ÐºÐ¾ÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¸Ð¼Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÐ°, ÑÐ¾ ÐµÑÑÑ, Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð¼ Ð¾Ñ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð´ÐµÑÑÑÐ¸Ð»ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¹ 3 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð´Ð¾ Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ð° 2 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. [ÐÐ°ÐºÑÐ¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð² 1972, Ñ. 114].
ÐÐ°Ð¸Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÐµÐµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½Ð¸Ðµ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¿Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð°Ð½ÑÐ¸ÑÐ½ÑÑ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾Ñ Ð½Ð° Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ Ð¿Ð°Ð¼ÑÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¸ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐºÐ¸ÑÑÑÑ 1 Ð². Ð¢Ð°Ðº, Ð½Ð° Ð³Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð´Ð¸ÑÐµ ÐÐ¾Ð½Ð°ÑÑÑÑÐµÐº Ð¾Ð±Ð»Ð¾Ð¼ÐºÐ¸ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾Ñ Ð¸Ð· ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¸ÑÐ½ÐµÐ²Ð¾Ð¹ Ð³Ð»Ð¸Ð½Ñ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð»ÐµÐ½Ñ ÑÑÐ°Ð³Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ Ð²ÑÐµÑ ÑÐ°ÑÑÐµÐ¹ ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ´Ð¾Ð² [ÐÐ°ÐºÑÐ¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð², ÐÐµÑÑÐ°ÑÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾ 1988, ÑÐ¸Ñ. 59, 16, 17, 20]. ÐÐ°Ðº Ð¾ÑÐ¼ÐµÑÐ°Ð»Ð¾ÑÑ, Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð±ÑÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ ÑÑÐ¸Ñ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾Ñ Ð¾Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÐµÑÑÑ Ð´Ð²ÑÐ¼Ñ ÑÑÐ¾Ð»ÐµÑÐ¸ÑÐ¼Ð¸ (1 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. â" 1 Ð². Ð½. Ñ.). ÐÐ¾Ð·Ð´Ð½Ð¸Ð¹ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÐµÐ» Ð¿Ð¾Ð¿Ð°Ð´Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ ÑÑÐ¸Ñ Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾Ñ Ð½Ð° Ð³Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð´Ð¸ÑÐµ ÐÐ¾Ð½Ð°ÑÑÑÑÐµÐº Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÑ Ð±ÑÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾Ð´ÐºÑÐµÐ¿Ð»ÐµÐ½ Ð½Ð°Ñ Ð¾Ð´ÐºÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ Ð¾Ð±Ð»Ð¾Ð¼ÐºÐ¾Ð² ÐºÑÐ°ÑÐ½Ð¾-Ð³Ð»Ð¸Ð½ÑÐ½ÑÑ Ð¼Ð¸ÑÐ¾ÑÐµÐº Ð½Ð° ÐºÐ¾Ð»ÑÑÐµÐ²Ð¾Ð¹ Ð½Ð¾Ð¶ÐºÐµ, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÑÑÑ Ðº 1 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ., Ð¸ Ð¾Ð±Ð»Ð¾Ð¼ÐºÐ¾Ð¼ Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¸Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð½Ð¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð³Ð¾ÑÐ¸Ð·Ð¾Ð½ÑÐ°Ð»ÑÐ½ÑÐ¼Ð¸ ÐºÐ°Ð½Ð°Ð²ÐºÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ Ð²ÐµÐ½ÑÐ¸ÐºÐ° ÐºÑÐ°ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð»Ð°ÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÐ°ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸, Ð²Ð¾Ð·Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶Ð½Ð¾, Ð´Ð°Ð¶Ðµ 2 Ð². Ð½. Ñ. [ÐÐ°ÐºÑÐ¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð², ÐÐµÑÑÐ°ÑÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾ 1988, Ñ. 72]. ÐÐ±Ð»Ð¾Ð¼ÐºÐ¸ ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ´Ð¾Ð² terra sigillata Ð¸Ð¼ÐµÑÑÑÑ Ð¸ ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð¸ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð¾Ð² Ð² Ð¥Ð¾Ð´Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð²Ðµ [ÐÐ°ÐºÑÐ¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð² 1991, Ñ. 7].
Ð'ÑÐµÐ¼Ñ ÑÑÐ½ÐºÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð½Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ», Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÑ Ð½Ð° Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿Ð°Ð¼ÑÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ°Ñ , Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÑ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð²ÑÐ²Ð°ÑÑÑÑ Ð½Ð° Ð°Ð±ÑÐ¾Ð»ÑÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¸ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÐ¸ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð¸ Ð°Ð½Ð°Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐ½ÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð² Ð² Ð¡ÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ¹ ÐÐ²ÑÐ¾Ð¿Ðµ. Ð"Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð²ÐºÐ° ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐµÐ²ÑÐ¾Ð¿ÐµÐ¹ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð¾Ð¿Ð¸ÑÐ°ÐµÑÑÑ Ð½Ð° ÑÐµÐ·ÑÐ»ÑÑÐ°ÑÑ Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð´ÑÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð°Ð½Ð°Ð»Ð¸Ð·Ð¾Ð² Ð¸ Ð½Ð° ÐºÐ¾ÑÑÐµÐ»ÑÑÐ¸Ñ Ñ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ½ÑÐ¼Ð¸ ÐºÐ°ÑÐµÐ³Ð¾ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð´ÑÑÐ³Ð¸Ñ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÑÑÐ¸Ñ Ð²ÐµÑÐµÐ¹.
Ð¡Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¼Ð¸ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½Ð¸Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ Ð¸Ð· Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÑ Ð² Ð·Ð°ÐºÑÑÑÑÑ ÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ð¿Ð»ÐµÐºÑÐ°Ñ , ÑÐ²Ð»ÑÑÑÑÑ ÑÐ°ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐµ ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÑ ÐµÐ¼Ñ. Ð'Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ñ Ð²Ð¾ÑÑÐ¼ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¾Ð±ÑÐ°Ð·Ð½ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ»ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð½Ð° ÑÐ¿Ð¸Ð½ÐºÐµ, Ð° Ð½Ðµ Ð½Ð° Ð½Ð¾Ð¶ÐºÐµ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð½Ð°Ð¸Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÐµÐµ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½Ð¸Ð¼Ð¸ â" ÑÐ¸Ð¿ Ð 2. ÐÑÑÐ¾ÐºÐ¸ Ð¸Ñ ÑÑ Ð¾Ð´ÑÑ Ð½Ð° ÑÐµÑÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¸Ñ ÐºÐµÐ»ÑÑÐ¾-Ð¸Ð»Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ð¹ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑ Ð`Ð°Ð»ÐºÐ°Ð½Ð¾-Ð"ÑÐ½Ð°Ð¹ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÐµÐ³Ð¸Ð¾Ð½Ð° [WoÅ¼niak 1974, s. 39â"40]. Ð¤Ð¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ñ ÑÐ°ÑÐ¸ÐºÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ Ð½Ð° ÑÐ¿Ð¸Ð½ÐºÐµ ( ÑÐ¸Ð¿ Ð 1) ÑÐ²ÑÐ·ÑÐ²Ð°ÑÑÑÑ Ñ ÑÐµÐ²ÐµÑÐ½ÑÐ¼Ð¸ ÑÐ°Ð¹Ð¾Ð½Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÑÑÐ¾ÑÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ [BabeÅ 1985, Ñ. 107]. ÐÐ¾ÑÐ²Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ ÑÑÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð² ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÑ Ðº 1 ÑÐ°Ð·Ðµ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð° C, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÐ°Ñ, Ð¿Ð¾ Ð. Ð"Ð¾Ð´Ð»Ð¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ñ, Ð½Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð½Ð°ÐµÑÑÑ Ð¾ÐºÐ¾Ð»Ð¾ ÑÐµÑÐµÐ´Ð¸Ð½Ñ 3 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. [GodÅowski 1977, s. 42â"47].
ÐÐ´Ð½Ð°ÐºÐ¾ Ð² Ð¿ÐµÑÐ²ÑÐµ Ð´ÐµÑÑÑÐ¸Ð»ÐµÑÐ¸Ñ ÑÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð° ÐµÑÐµ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð´Ð¾Ð»Ð¶Ð°ÑÑ Ð±ÑÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°ÑÑ Ð²ÐµÑÐ¸ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÑÐ¸Ð»Ñ, Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÐ¾Ð¼Ñ Ð¸ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð°ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð²ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÐµÑÑÑ Ð¿ÐµÑÐµÑ Ð¾Ð´Ð½ÑÐ¹ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´ Ð¾Ñ ÑÑÑÐ¿ÐµÐ½Ð¸ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ B2 Ðº Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ñ C1 â" Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ B2/C1, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ¹ Ð·Ð°ÐºÐ°Ð½ÑÐ¸Ð²Ð°ÐµÑÑÑ Ð² ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐµ 3 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. [Bujna 1982, Abb. 3.45; 5.47]. Ð'Ð¾ Ð²ÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼ ÑÐ»ÑÑÐ°Ðµ, Ð¾ÑÑÐ°ÑÐºÐ¸ Ð¾Ð±ÑÐ³Ð»Ð¸Ð²ÑÐµÐ³Ð¾ÑÑ Ð´ÐµÑÐµÐ²Ð° Ð¸Ð· Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ â96 Ð² Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐµ Ð'ÐµÐ´ÐµÑÐ°Ñ Ð½Ð° Ð ÐµÐ¹Ð½Ðµ Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÑÑÐ¿ÐµÐ½Ð¸ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ C1b Ð¿Ð¾ Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð´ÑÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ñ Ð°Ð½Ð°Ð»Ð¸Ð·Ñ ÑÐºÐ°Ð·Ð°Ð»Ð¸ Ð½Ð° Ð²Ð¾Ð·Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶Ð½ÑÑ Ð´Ð°ÑÑ ÑÑÐ±ÐºÐ¸ Ð´ÐµÑÐµÐ²Ð° 208 Ð³. Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. [Haffner 1979, S. 405â"409]. Ð¡Ð¼ÐµÐ½Ð° ÑÑÐ¸Ð»ÐµÐ¹ Ð²ÐµÑÐµÐ¹ Ñ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð° B2 Ð½Ð° Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ C1 ÑÐ²ÑÐ·ÑÐ²Ð°ÐµÑÑÑ Ñ Ð¿ÐµÑÐµÐ´Ð²Ð¸Ð¶ÐµÐ½Ð¸ÑÐ¼Ð¸ ÐºÐµÐ»ÑÑÐ¾Ð², Ð²ÑÑÐµÑÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð¸Ð· ÐÑÐ°Ð»Ð¸Ð¸ Ð² 250â"235 Ð³Ð³. Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. [Polenz 1982, S. 120â"124]. ÐÐ¾Ð¼Ð¿Ð»ÐµÐºÑ Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ â127 Ð½Ð° Ð³ÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐµ ÐÑÐ±Ð¾ÑÐ¸ÑÐµ Ð½Ð° ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ¼ ÐÐ´ÐµÑÐµ (ÐÐ¾Ð»ÑÑÐ°), Ð² ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð¼ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð° Ñ ÑÐ°ÑÐ¸ÐºÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð° Ð²Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐµ Ñ ÑÐµÐ¹Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð³ÑÐ¸Ð²Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° O/1, Ð¿Ð¾ Ð¢. Ð¤Ð¾Ð¹Ð³ÑÑ, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÐ°Ñ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÐµÑÑÑ ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐ¾Ð¼ 3 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. [DomaÅski 1975, s. 19] ÑÐ°ÐºÐ¶Ðµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð´ÑÐ²ÐµÑÐ¶Ð´Ð°ÐµÑ Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ð¾ ÑÑÐ½ÐºÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð½Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ ÑÐ°ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» ÑÑÐ¸Ð¼ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ¼. Ð¢Ð°ÐºÐ¸Ð¼ Ð¾Ð±ÑÐ°Ð·Ð¾Ð¼, ÑÐ°ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ð 2 Ð¸ Ð 1 ÑÐµÐ¾ÑÐµÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð»Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾Ð¿Ð°ÑÑÑ Ð² Ð¿Ð°Ð¼ÑÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¸ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ ÐµÑÐµ Ð² Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ðµ C1, ÑÐ¾ ÐµÑÑÑ Ð² Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð½Ð¸Ðµ Ð´ÐµÑÑÑÐ¸Ð»ÐµÑÐ¸Ñ 3 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ Ð² ÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¾Ð¼ Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ðµ 2 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. (Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ â26 ÐÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ°, Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ â108 Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ° Ð'ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ¼Ð¸ÑÐ¸-1, Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ â4 Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ° Ð'Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¸Ð½Ð¾). Ð Ð°ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð½ÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ð±ÑÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð»Ð¸ Ð½Ð° Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ Ð²ÑÐµÐ³Ð¾ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð° C. Ð¢Ð°Ðº, ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ P3 (Ñ Ð¼ÐµÐ»ÐºÐ¸Ð¼Ð¸ Ð²ÑÐ¿ÑÐºÐ»Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð½Ð° Ð½Ð¾Ð¶ÐºÐµ) Ð¸Ð· Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ â129 Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ° Ð² ÐÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾Ð²Ðµ Ð. Ð'. ÐÐ°ÑÐ¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð° ÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð½Ð¸Ð²Ð°ÐµÑ Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð¼ ÐÐµÑÐ²Ð¸Ð»Ñ Ð¸ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÐ¸Ñ Ðº Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ñ C2 [1984, Ñ. 115], Ñ Ð¾ÑÑ Ð² ÐºÐµÐ»ÑÑÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ°Ñ ÐÐ¾ÑÐ°Ð²Ð¸Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð±Ð½ÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÑÑÑÑ Ð¸ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð¾Ð¼ C1 [CiÅ¾maÅ 1975, s. 417â"437].
Ð¢. Ð"Ð¾Ð¼Ð±ÑÐ¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ°Ñ, Ð°Ð½Ð°Ð»Ð¸Ð·Ð¸ÑÑÑ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ñ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ²Ð¾ÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ, Ð¿ÑÐ¸ÑÐ»Ð° Ðº Ð²ÑÐ²Ð¾Ð´Ñ, ÑÑÐ¾ Ð´Ð»Ð¸Ð½Ð½ÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° A- Ð¸ B-ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¸, ÑÐºÑÐ°ÑÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐµ Ð¼ÐµÐ»ÐºÐ¸Ð¼Ð¸ Ð²ÑÐ¿ÑÐºÐ»Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¼Ð¸ (Ð² Ð½Ð°ÑÐµÐ¹ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð¿ P3) ÑÑÐ¸Ð»Ð¸ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸ ÑÐ²ÑÐ·Ð°Ð½Ñ Ñ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð¾Ð¼ C1 Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð³Ð½Ð°Ð»Ð¸Ð·Ð¸ÑÑÑÑ Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ð¾ Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÐµÑÑÐ° ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¼Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ²Ð¾ÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ [DÄ browska 1988, S. 302].
ÐÐµÐ¾ÑÐ½Ð°Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð½ÑÐµ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ð»Ð¾ÑÐ½ÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ð² Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐ°Ñ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐ²Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ÑÑ Ð¾Ð´Ð½Ð¾Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾ Ñ ÑÐ°ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð² Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ðµ C1 Ð¸ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ½ÑÐµ Ð¸Ñ Ð¼Ð¾Ð´Ð¸ÑÐ¸ÐºÐ°ÑÐ¸Ð¸ ÑÑÑÐµÑÑÐ²Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð»Ð¸ Ð½Ð° Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð° C Ð¸ D. ÐÐ°Ð¸Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÐµÐµ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½Ð¸Ð¼Ð¸ Ð¸Ð· Ð½Ð¸Ñ ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐ°ÑÑÑÑ Ð´Ð»Ð¸Ð½Ð½ÑÐµ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ð»Ð¾ÑÐ½ÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ñ Ð¿Ð»Ð°Ð²Ð½Ð¾ Ð¸Ð·Ð¾Ð³Ð½ÑÑÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÐ¿Ð¸Ð½ÐºÐ¾Ð¹ Ð¸ Ð½Ð¾Ð¶ÐºÐ¾Ð¹, Ð¿ÑÐ¸ÐºÑÐµÐ¿Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð¼ÐµÑÐ½Ð¾ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð¸Ð½Ðµ ÑÐ¿Ð¸Ð½ÐºÐ¸, â" ÑÐ¸Ð¿ A-ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ Ð¸ Ñ Ð¿ÑÑÐ¼Ð¾ÑÐ³Ð¾Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¾ ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð½ÑÑÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÐ¿Ð¸Ð½ÐºÐ¾Ð¹ Ð¸ Ð½Ð¾Ð¶ÐºÐ¾Ð¹, Ð¿ÑÐ¸ÐºÑÐµÐ¿Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð½Ð° ÑÐ¿Ð¸Ð½ÐºÐµ Ð±Ð»Ð¸Ð·ÐºÐ¾ Ñ Ð³Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð²ÐºÐ¸, â" ÑÐ¸Ð¿ B-ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹. Ð' Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° Ð Ð½ÐµÑ, Ð½Ð¾ ÐµÑÑÑ Ð¾ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÐ½ÑÐµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð´ÑÐ°Ð¶Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°Ð¼ ÑÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° â" ÑÑÐ¾ ÐÐº Ð¸Ð· Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ â128 ÐÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ° Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð¿ Ba Ð¸Ð· Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ â70 Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ° Ð'ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ¼Ð¸ÑÐ¸-1. Ð"Ð»Ð¸Ð½Ð½ÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° A-ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹, Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð±ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾ Ñ Ð¼ÐµÐ»ÐºÐ¸Ð¼Ð¸ Ð²ÑÐ¿ÑÐºÐ»Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¼Ð¸, Ð¾ÑÐµÐ½Ñ Ð±ÑÑÑÑÐ¾ Ð¸ÑÑÐµÐ·Ð°ÑÑ Ð¸Ð· ÑÐ¿Ð¾ÑÑÐµÐ±Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð² ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐ°Ñ Ð¡ÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ¹ ÐÐ²ÑÐ¾Ð¿Ñ Ð¸ ÑÐ¼ÐµÐ½ÑÑÑÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð¼ B-, Ð° Ð·Ð°ÑÐµÐ¼ Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð¼ C-ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ (Ñ Ð¾ÑÑÑÑÐ¼ Ð¸Ð·Ð»Ð¾Ð¼Ð¾Ð¼ ÑÐ¿Ð¸Ð½ÐºÐ¸ Ñ Ð³Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð²ÐºÐ¸), Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð½Ð¸Ðµ ÑÐºÐ°Ð·ÑÐ²Ð°ÑÑ Ð½Ð° ÑÐ°Ð·Ñ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ C2.
Ð"ÑÐ°Ð½Ð¸ÑÐ° Ð¼ÐµÐ¶Ð´Ñ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð¾Ð¼ C1 Ð¸ C2, Ð¿Ð¾ X. ÐÐ¾Ð»ÐµÐ½ÑÑ, Ð¿Ð°Ð´Ð°ÐµÑ Ð½Ð° 185â"170 Ð³Ð³. Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ., ÑÑÐ¾ ÑÑÑÐ°Ð½Ð¾Ð²Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð¾ Ð¸Ð¼ Ð¿ÑÑÐµÐ¼ ÐºÐ¾ÑÑÐµÐ»ÑÑÐ¸Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð¸ Ð¼Ð¾Ð½ÐµÑ Ð² Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ°Ñ Ð¼ÐµÐ¶Ð´ÑÑÐµÑÑÑ Ð ÐµÐ¹Ð½Ð° Ð¸ ÐÐ°Ð¹Ð½Ð° [Polenz 1982, S. 123]. Ð Ð±Ð»Ð¸Ð·ÐºÐ¸Ð¼ Ð²ÑÐ²Ð¾Ð´Ð°Ð¼ Ð¿ÑÐ¸ÑÐµÐ» Ð'. Ð¨ÑÐµÐºÐ»Ð¸ Ð² ÑÐµÐ·ÑÐ»ÑÑÐ°ÑÐµ Ð°Ð½Ð°Ð»Ð¸Ð·Ð° Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¾Ñ Ð¸Ð· ÐÐ°Ð½Ñ Ð¸Ð½Ð³Ð° [StÃ¶ckli 1979, S. 185]. Ð' Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð·Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð½ÑÑ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐ°Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° Ð' Ð²ÑÑÑÐµÑÐ°ÑÑÑÑ Ñ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ½ÑÐ¼Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ», Ñ Ð°ÑÐ°ÐºÑÐµÑÐ½ÑÑ Ð´Ð»Ñ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð½ÑÑ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÑ Ð¾ÑÑÐµÐ·ÐºÐ¾Ð². Ð¢Ð°Ðº, Ð² ÑÑÑÐ¾ÑÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐµ ÐÐ°Ð¼Ð¼ÐµÑ (Ð`ÑÐ°Ð½Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð±ÑÑÐ³) Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸ÑÑ â1 Ð¸ 12, Ð² Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐµ ÐÐ¾ÐµÐ½ÐµÑÑÐ¸ Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ â48 Ð¸ Ð² Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐµ Ð³ÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ Ð³ÑÑÐ¿Ð¿Ñ ÐÑÐ±Ð¾ÑÐ¸ÑÐµ Ð½Ð° Ð¡ÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ¼ ÐÐ´ÐµÑÐµ Ð¾Ð½Ð¸ ÑÐ¾Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ð¶Ð´Ð°ÑÑÑÑ ÑÐ°ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐ¼Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ Ñ ÑÐ°ÑÐ¸ÐºÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ (ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° Ð 1) [Hachmann 1961, S. 99, Abb. 31; Vulpe 1953, Ñ. 327; DomaÅski 1975, s. 19]. Ð' Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸ÑÑ â105 Ð¸ 147 Ð¾Ð½Ð¸ Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸ÐºÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ñ Ð²Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐµ Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° ÑÐ¸Ñ. 19-ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ (ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° III.1-Ð. Ð`Ð°Ð±ÐµÑÐ°), ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµ ÑÐ°ÐºÐ¶Ðµ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐºÐ¸ÑÑÑÑ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ C [Vulpe 1953, Ñ. 349, 362]. Ð' Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ â4 Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ° ÐÐ°Ð¼Ð¼ÐµÑ, Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ â56 Ð¿ÑÐµÐ²Ð¾ÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ° ÐÐ°Ð³ÑÐ¶Ð¸Ð½ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° Ð' Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½Ñ Ð²Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐµ Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð² H- Ð¸ G/H-ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÑÑÑ ÑÐ¶Ðµ Ðº Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ñ D1 [Hachmann 1961, S. 99, Abb. 31; DÄ browska 1988, s. 18].
ÐÑÐ°Ðº, ÑÑÐ½ÐºÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð½Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ðµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° Ð' Ð² Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð·Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð½ÑÑ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐ°Ñ ÐÐ²ÑÐ¾Ð¿Ñ Ð¾Ð±Ð½Ð¸Ð¼Ð°ÐµÑ Ð´Ð¾ÑÑÐ°ÑÐ¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾ÐºÐ¸Ð¹ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ Ð´Ð¸Ð°Ð¿Ð°Ð·Ð¾Ð½ â" Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ C Ð¸ D1 Ð¸, Ð²Ð¾Ð·Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶Ð½Ð¾, Ð²Ð¿Ð»Ð¾ÑÑ Ð´Ð¾ ÑÐ¿Ð¾Ñ Ð¸ ÐÐ²Ð³ÑÑÑÐ°, ÐºÐ°Ðº ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐ°Ð» Ð. Ð"ÐµÑÐµÐ»ÐµÑÑ, ÑÐ¾ ÐµÑÑÑ Ð²ÐµÑÑ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ D. Ð' Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐµ Ð'Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¸Ð½Ðµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð° ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° Ð' Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð° Ð²Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐµ Ñ ÑÐ°ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð¾Ð¹ Ñ Ð²Ð¾ÑÑÐ¼ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¾Ð±ÑÐ°Ð·Ð½ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ»ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð½Ð° ÑÐ¿Ð¸Ð½ÐºÐµ (P2) Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ â25; Ð² ÐÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾Ð²Ðµ Ð²Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐµ Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð¾Ð¹ ÐÐ¢-II Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ â150; Ð² ÐÑÐ²ÐµÑÐ¶Ð¸ÑÐ°Ñ Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ â31, Ð² Ð'ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ¼Ð¸ÑÐ°Ñ -1 Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ â60 Ð¸ Ð² Ð§Ð°Ð¿Ð»Ð¸Ð½Ðµ Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ â117 Ð²Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐµ Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ ÐÐ¢-III; Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ Ð¶Ðµ â70 Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ° Ð'ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ¼Ð¸ÑÐ¸-1 Ð²Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐµ Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° N1Ð². Ð¢Ð¾ ÐµÑÑÑ, Ð² Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° Ð' ÑÐ¾ÑÑÑÐµÑÑÐ²ÑÑÑ Ñ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ³Ð¾ Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ³Ð¾ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð°.
ÐÐµÑÐµÑ Ð¾Ð´ Ð¾Ñ ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ³Ð¾ Ðº Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ñ Ð¸ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð°ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ¼Ð¸ ÐµÐ´Ð¸Ð½Ð¾Ð´ÑÑÐ½Ð¾ Ð¾Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÐµÑÑÑ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð±Ð»Ð¸Ð·Ð¸ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ½Ð¾ Ð¾Ð´Ð½Ð¸Ð¼ Ð¸ ÑÐµÐ¼ Ð¶Ðµ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼ Ð¾ÑÑÐµÐ·ÐºÐ¾Ð¼ â" 120/116 Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ 120/105 Ð³Ð³. Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ.
Ð"ÐµÐ½Ð´ÑÐ¾Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ Ð¸ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð±ÑÐµÐ²ÐµÐ½ Ð¼Ð¾ÑÑÐ° Ð² Ð¢Ð¸Ð»Ð»Ðµ (Ð¨Ð²ÐµÐ¹ÑÐ°ÑÐ¸Ñ), Ð³Ð´Ðµ Ð²ÑÐµ ÑÐ¾Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ð¶Ð´Ð°ÑÑÐ¸Ðµ Ð½Ð°Ñ Ð¾Ð´ÐºÐ¸ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÑÑÑ Ðº Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ñ D, Ð¿Ð¾ÐºÐ°Ð·Ð°Ð»Ð¸, ÑÑÐ¾ ÑÑÐ¸ Ð±ÑÐµÐ²Ð½Ð° Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð»Ð¸ Ð±ÑÑÑ ÑÑÑÐ±Ð»ÐµÐ½Ñ Ð³Ð´Ðµ-ÑÐ¾ Ð¼ÐµÐ¶Ð´Ñ 120â"116 Ð³Ð³. Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. [Hachmann 1961, S. 258; Polenz 1971, 8; Haffner 1979, S. 405â"409].
Ð¢Ð°ÐºÐ¸Ð¼ Ð¾Ð±ÑÐ°Ð·Ð¾Ð¼, Ð² 120â"116 Ð³Ð³. Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»ÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´ â" Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ D. ÐÑÐ½Ð¾Ð²Ð½ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð¸ÑÑÐ¾ÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐ¾Ð±ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐ¼Ð¸ ÑÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð¸, Ð¾ÐºÐ°Ð·Ð°Ð²ÑÐ¸Ð¼Ð¸ Ð²Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ½Ð¸Ðµ Ð½Ð° Ð¸Ð·Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ ÑÑÐ¸Ð»Ñ ÑÐºÑÐ°ÑÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¹ Ð¸ Ð´ÑÑÐ³Ð¸Ñ ÐºÐ°ÑÐµÐ³Ð¾ÑÐ¸Ð¹ Ð²ÐµÑÐµÐ¹, Ð±ÑÐ»Ð¸ Ð²Ð¾Ð¹Ð½Ñ Ð¦ÐµÐ·Ð°ÑÑ Ð² Ð"Ð°Ð»Ð»Ð¸Ð¸, ÑÐ°Ð·Ð³ÑÐ¾Ð¼ Ð±Ð¾Ð¹ÐµÐ² Ð¸ ÑÐµÐ²ÑÐ¸ÑÐºÐ¾Ð² Ð`ÑÑÐµÐ±Ð¸ÑÑÐ¾Ð¹, Ð¿Ð¾Ð´Ð²Ð¸Ð¶ÐºÐ¸ Ð¾ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÐ½ÑÑ Ð³ÐµÑÐ¼Ð°Ð½ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿Ð»ÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½ Ð½Ð° ÐºÐµÐ»ÑÑÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ Ð·ÐµÐ¼Ð»Ð¸, Ð¿ÐµÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÑÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð³ÐµÐ»ÑÐ²ÐµÑÐ¾Ð² Ð¸ ÑÐ²ÐµÐ±Ð¾Ð², Ð¾ÐºÐºÑÐ¿Ð°ÑÐ¸Ñ Ð Ð¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð¼ ÐÐ¾ÑÐ¸ÐºÐ° Ð¸ Ð ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¸. Ð¥ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ñ ÑÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¾ÑÑÐµÐ·ÐºÐ° Ð¾Ð¿Ð¸ÑÐ°ÐµÑÑÑ Ð² Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð²Ð½Ð¾Ð¼ Ð½Ð° Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ñ ÐºÐµÐ»ÑÑÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¾Ð¿Ð¿Ð¸Ð´ÑÐ¼Ð¾Ð².
ÐÐ°ÑÐµÐ½ D Ð¸ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð°ÑÐµÐ»Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾Ð´ÑÐ°Ð·Ð´ÐµÐ»ÑÑÑ Ð½Ð° Ð´Ð²Ðµ ÑÐ°Ð·Ñ. Ð¤Ð°Ð·Ð° D1 Ð´Ð¸Ð°Ð³Ð½Ð¾ÑÑÐ¸ÑÑÐµÑÑÑ Ð½Ð°ÑÑ Ð°Ð¹Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°Ð¼Ð¸. ÐÑ Ð¼Ð½Ð¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð² Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð°Ñ Ð¾Ð¿Ð¿Ð¸Ð´ÑÐ¼Ð° ÐÐ°Ð½Ñ Ð¸Ð½Ð³. ÐÐ½ Ð±ÑÐ» ÑÐ°Ð·ÑÑÑÐµÐ½, ÐºÐ°Ðº ÑÐµÐ¿ÐµÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð°Ð³Ð°ÑÑ, Ð² 60â"58 Ð³Ð³. Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ Ð² ÑÐµÐ·ÑÐ»ÑÑÐ°ÑÐµ Ð¿Ð¾Ñ Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð² Ð`ÑÑÐµÐ±Ð¸ÑÑÑ, Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ ÐºÐ°ÐºÐ¸Ñ -ÑÐ¾ Ð³ÐµÑÐ¼Ð°Ð½ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿Ð»ÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½, Ð°, Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÑ Ð±ÑÑÑ, Ð² ÑÐµÐ·ÑÐ»ÑÑÐ°ÑÐµ Ð²Ð½ÑÑÑÐ¸ÐºÐµÐ»ÑÑÑÐºÐ¸Ñ ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐ»Ð¸ÐºÑÐ¾Ð² [GodÅowski 1977, s. 61â" 63], Ð° Ð½Ðµ Ð² ÑÐµÐ·ÑÐ»ÑÑÐ°ÑÐµ Ð¾ÐºÐºÑÐ¿Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð Ð¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð¼ Ð ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð¸ ÐÐ¾ÑÐ¸ÐºÐ°, ÐºÐ°Ðº ÑÐ°Ð½ÐµÐµ ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐ°Ð» Ð. Ð'ÐµÑÐ½ÐµÑ [Werner 1979, S. 113]. ÐÐ° Ð¾Ð¿Ð¿Ð¸Ð´ÑÐ¼Ð°Ñ , ÑÐ°Ð·ÑÑÑÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð¶Ðµ, Ð² 15â"10 Ð³Ð³. Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ., ÑÐ¶Ðµ Ð½Ðµ Ð²ÑÑÑÐµÑÐ°ÑÑÑÑ Ð½Ð°ÑÑ Ð°Ð¹Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ, Ð½Ð¾ ÐµÑÑÑ Ð²ÐµÑÐ¸ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÑÐ¸Ð»Ñ [GodÅowski 1977, Ð². 60â"62].
ÐÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´ Ñ 60â"50 Ð³Ð³. Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð¿Ð¾ 15â" 10 Ð³Ð³. Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. (Ð¾Ñ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð³ÑÐ¾Ð¼Ð° ÐÐ°Ð½Ñ Ð¸Ð½Ð³Ð° Ð´Ð¾ Ð¾ÐºÐºÑÐ¿Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð¸ ÐÐ¾ÑÐ¸ÐºÐ°) Ð²ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÐµÑÑÑ Ð¸ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð°ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð² ÑÐ°Ð·Ñ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ D2. Ð' ÑÑÐ¾ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð¸ÑÑÐµÐ·Ð°ÐµÑ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ°Ñ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐ° Ð² ÐÐ¾ÑÐ°Ð²Ð¸Ð¸, Ð² Ð§ÐµÑ Ð¸Ð¸ ÑÐ°ÑÐ¿ÑÐ¾ÑÑÑÐ°Ð½ÑÑÑÑÑ ÑÑÑÐ¿Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð¶Ð¶ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ, Ð°Ð½Ð°Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐ½ÑÐµ ÑÐµÐ¼, ÑÑÐ¾ Ð±ÑÐ»Ð¸ Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸ÐºÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ñ Ð½Ð° ÐÐ»ÑÐ±Ðµ, Ð² Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿Ð°Ð¼ÑÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ°Ñ Ð¡Ð»Ð¾Ð²Ð°ÐºÐ¸Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐ²Ð»ÑÐµÑÑÑ Ð´Ð°ÐºÐ¸Ð¹ÑÐºÐ°Ñ ÐºÐµÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ÐºÐ°. Ð' ÐÐ°Ð½Ð½Ð¾Ð½Ð¸Ð¸ ÐµÑÐµ ÐºÐ°ÐºÐ¾Ðµ-ÑÐ¾ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð´Ð¾Ð»Ð¶Ð°Ð»Ð¸ ÑÑÐ½ÐºÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð½Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°ÑÑ Ð½ÐµÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµ Ð¾Ð¿Ð¿Ð¸Ð´ÑÐ¼Ñ. ÐÐ· ÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¸Ð½ÑÐ¸Ð¹ Ð½Ð° Ð"ÑÐ½Ð°Ðµ Ð½Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð½Ð°Ð»Ð¸ ÑÐ°ÑÐ¿ÑÐ¾ÑÑÑÐ°Ð½ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð²ÐµÑÐ¸ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÑÐ¸Ð»Ñ, Ð½Ð¾ Ð¿ÐµÑÐµÑ Ð¾Ð´ Ðº ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ñ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð¸ ÑÐ°ÑÑÑÐ½ÑÐ»ÑÑ Ð½Ð° ÑÑÐ¾ Ð»ÐµÑ. Ð' Ð¿ÑÐµÐ²Ð¾ÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ðµ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð½Ð°ÑÑÑÐ¿Ð°ÐµÑ Ñ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐ²Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð¸ÐµÐ¼ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» ÐÐ»ÑÐ¼Ð³ÑÐµÐ½ 68 Ð² 40â"70 Ð³Ð³. [Liana 1970, s. 429â" 491; DÄ browska 1976, S. 153â"165]. ÐÑÐ°Ð²Ð´Ð°, Ð² Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÐµÐµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ¹ ÑÐ°Ð±Ð¾ÑÐµ Ð¢. Ð"Ð¾Ð¼Ð±ÑÐ¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ°Ñ Ð¾Ð³ÑÐ°Ð½Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ð²Ð°ÐµÑ ÐµÐ³Ð¾ ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐ¾Ð¼ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ²Ð¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ð¾Ð¼ Ð²ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð´ÐµÑÑÑÐ¸Ð»ÐµÑÐ¸Ñ 1 Ð². Ð½. Ñ. [DÄ browska 1988, s. 305]. ÐÐ¾ Ð¼Ð½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð. Ð`. Ð©ÑÐºÐ¸Ð½Ð°, ÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ðµ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð½Ð¸Ð¼Ð°ÐµÑ Ð¾Ð±ÑÐµÐµÐ²ÑÐ¾Ð¿ÐµÐ¹ÑÐºÐ¾Ðµ Ð·Ð½Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ ÑÐ¾Ð»ÑÐºÐ¾ Ð½Ð° ÑÑÑÐ¿ÐµÐ½Ð¸ Ð'2, Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ð¾ ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÐ¸Ð½Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¸Ð·Ð¸ÑÑÐµÑÑÑ Ñ ÑÐ¿Ð¾Ñ Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¤Ð»Ð°Ð²Ð¸ÐµÐ² (70â"90 Ð³Ð³.) [1993, Ñ. 79].
ÐÐ¾ÐºÐ°Ð·Ð°ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð° D1, ÐºÑÐ¾Ð¼Ðµ Ð½Ð°ÑÑ Ð°Ð¹Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ», ÑÐ²Ð»ÑÑÑÑÑ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ½ÑÐµ Ð¼Ð¾Ð´Ð¸ÑÐ¸ÐºÐ°ÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ð»Ð¾ÑÐ½ÑÑ ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° D, E, G, H Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° K, F, J-ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹. Ð' Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ°ÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð°, ÐºÐ°Ðº Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° Ð¡, Ð½Ðµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»ÑÑÐ¸Ð»Ð¸ ÑÐ°ÑÐ¿ÑÐ¾ÑÑÑÐ°Ð½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ, ÑÑÐ¾ ÑÐºÐ°Ð·ÑÐ²Ð°ÐµÑ Ð½Ð° Ð·Ð½Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ½Ð¾Ðµ Ð¾ÑÐ»Ð°Ð±Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ ÐµÐµ ÑÐ²ÑÐ·ÐµÐ¹ ÑÐ¾ Ð¡ÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ¹ ÐÐ²ÑÐ¾Ð¿Ð¾Ð¹ Ð² ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐµ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð° C2 Ð¸ D1. Ð'ÑÑÑÐµÑÐ°ÑÑÑÑ, Ð¿ÑÐ°Ð²Ð´Ð°, Ð¾ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÐ½ÑÐµ Ð´ÐµÑÐ¸Ð²Ð°ÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° D/E Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ â109 ÐÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ° Ð¸ Ð±Ð»Ð¸Ð·ÐºÐ¸Ðµ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð°Ð¼ G Ð¸ H Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸ÑÑ â7 Ð¸ 246 Ð² Ð§Ð°Ð¿Ð»Ð¸Ð½Ðµ, Ð±Ð»Ð¸Ð·ÐºÐ¸Ðµ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ñ D/A Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð³. Ð² Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐµ Ð'ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ¼Ð¸ÑÐ¸-1 Ð¸ D/A Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ â80 Ð² Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐµ Ð'ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ¼Ð¸ÑÐ¸-2, ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° D/B1 Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð³. Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ â124 Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° Ð'/Ð¡ Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ â193 ÐÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ°. ÐÑÐ¾Ð¼Ðµ ÑÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾, ÐµÑÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµ Ð² Ð¾Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¼ÐµÑÐµ ÑÐ¾Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° ÐÐ°ÑÑ Ð°Ð¹Ð¼ â" ÑÑÐ¾ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° M3a (Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ â78 Ð² Ð'ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ¼Ð¸ÑÐ°Ñ -2, Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ â5 Ð² Ð'Ð¸ÑÐµÐ½ÐºÐ°Ñ , Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ â20 Ð² Ð¡ÐµÐ¼ÑÑÐ°Ð´ÑÐ°Ñ ), ÑÐ¸Ð¿ M3Ð± (Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ â1 Ð² ÐÑÐ²ÐµÑÐ¶Ð¸ÑÐ°Ñ , Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ â61 Ð² ÐÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾Ð²Ðµ, Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ â3 Ð² Ð'Ð¸ÑÐµÐ½ÐºÐ°Ñ ) Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð¿ N3Ð± (Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ â21 Ð² Ð¡ÐµÐ¼ÑÑÐ°Ð´ÑÐ°Ñ , Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ â22 Ð½Ð° Ð"ÐµÐ²Ð¸Ñ Ð"Ð¾ÑÐµ).
ÐÐ°ÑÐµÐ½ D2 Ð¾Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð² M- Ð¸ N-ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹. Ð' Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð°Ñ Ð²ÑÑÑÐµÑÐ°ÑÑÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÐºÐ°Ðº Ð°Ð½Ð°Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐ½ÑÐµ ÑÑÐ¸Ð¼ â" ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ñ N1Ð², N2Ð², ÑÐ°Ðº Ð¸ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð±Ð»Ð¸Ð¶Ð°ÑÑÐ¸ÐµÑÑ Ðº Ð½Ð¸Ð¼ â" ÑÑÐ¾ Ð½ÐµÐ¿ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð½ÑÑÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð² M1a, N1a, N2a Ð¸ ÑÐ»Ð°Ð±Ð¾ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð½ÑÑÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð² Ð1Ð±, N1Ð±, ÑÑÐ¾ ÑÐºÐ°Ð·ÑÐ²Ð°ÐµÑ Ð½Ð° Ð¾Ð¶Ð¸Ð²Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ ÑÐ²ÑÐ·ÐµÐ¹ Ð² ÑÑÐ¾ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð¼ÐµÐ¶Ð´Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹, Ñ Ð¾Ð´Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð½Ñ, Ð¸ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ²Ð¾ÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ Ð¸ Ð¾ÐºÑÑÐ²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸, Ñ Ð´ÑÑÐ³Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð½Ñ.
Ð®. ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÐ¸Ð» ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð² M, N, O Ðº Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ñ Ð¸ Ð´Ð°Ð¶Ðµ Ðº ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ñ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð¸ [Kostrzewski 1919, S. 37, 39, 40]. Ð¡Ð¾Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐµ Ð¸ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð°ÑÐµÐ»Ð¸ Ðº Ð¸Ð½Ð´Ð¸ÐºÐ°ÑÐ¾ÑÐ°Ð¼ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð° D2 Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¾ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð½ÑÑÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ M1Ð² Ð¸ N1Ð², Ð° Ð½ÐµÐ¿ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð½ÑÑÑÐµ Ð¸ ÑÐ»Ð°Ð±Ð¾ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð½ÑÑÑÐµ (Ð1Ð°, Ð1Ð±, N1a, N1Ð±) ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐ°ÑÑ Ð²Ð¾Ð·Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶Ð½ÑÐ¼ ÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð¸ÑÑ Ð² Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÐµÐµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½Ð¸Ðµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ð¸ â" Ð² Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´ Ð¿ÐµÑÐµÐ¶Ð¸Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ ÑÑÐ°Ð´Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ð¹, ÑÐ¾ ÐµÑÑÑ Ð² ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ðµ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼Ñ A1-B1a [Shsukin 1989, part. 2, ill 19]. Ð¤Ð¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° Ð-ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ Â«Ð±Ð¾Ð¹ÐµÐ²Â» Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð¸ÑÑ Ð¾Ð´ÑÑ Ð¸Ð· Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ â47 (2 ÑÐºÐ·.) Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÂÐºÐ° Ð'ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ¼Ð¸ÑÐ¸-1, Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ â81 (2 ÑÐºÐ·.) â" Ð'ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ¼Ð¸ÑÐ¸-2, Ð° ÑÐ°ÐºÐ¶Ðµ 1 ÑÐºÐ·. Ð¸Ð· Ñ. Ð"ÑÐ¸ÑÐµÐ½ÂÑÑ ÐÐ¸ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ Ð¾Ð±Ð». ÐÑ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÑÑ ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐ¾Ð¼ 1 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð¸ Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ð¾Ð¼ 1 Ð². [ÐÐ¼Ð±ÑÐ¾Ð· 1966, Ñ. 25], Ð½Ðµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐµ 40â"50 Ð³Ð³. [ÐÐ°ÑÐ¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð° 1981, Ñ. 16].
Ð¤Ð¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÑ ÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð¸Ð·Ð²ÐµÑÑÂÐ½Ñ ÑÐ°ÐºÐ¶Ðµ Ð² Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð°Ñ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¹: Ð² Ð¢Ð°ÂÑÐµÐ½ÐºÐ°Ñ â" M3Ð± Ð¸ N1Ð±, Ð½Ð° Ð¢ÑÑÐ±ÐµÐ¶Ðµ Ð² Ð¿ÑÐ½ÐºÂÑÐµ Ð'Ð¾Ð»ÑÐºÐ¾Ð² â" N1Ð², Ð½Ð° ÐÐ±Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð½Ð¸ â" N1Ð° [Ð¨Ð¾Ð²ÐºÐ¾Ð¿Ð»ÑÑ 1988, Ñ. 237]. ÐÐ° Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ ÐÐ¾ÑÐ¶Ð¸ Ð½Ð° Ð¢ÑÑÐ±ÐµÐ¶Ðµ â" ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð° Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÂÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÑ ÐµÐ¼Ñ Â«Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ¿ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾Â» ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° [Ð¡Ð°Ð²ÂÑÑÐº 1969, ÑÐ¸Ñ. 1, 22]. ÐÐµÐ»ÐµÐ·Ð½Ð°Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð° Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÑ ÐµÐ¼Ñ Ñ ÑÐ°Ð¼ÑÐ°ÑÑÐ¼ Ð¿ÑÐ¸ÐµÐ¼Ð½Ð¸ÐºÐ¾Ð¼ Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð° Ð'. Ð"ÐµÐ·Ðµ Ð² 1901 Ð³. Ð½Ð° Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ Ð¡Ð°Ñ Ð½Ð¾Ð²ÐºÐ° (Ð"Ð¾ÑÐ° Ð"ÐµÐ²Ð¸ÑÐ°) [ÐÐ°ÐºÂÑÐ¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð² 1972, Ñ. 53].
Ð¢Ð°ÐºÐ¸Ð¼ Ð¾Ð±ÑÐ°Ð·Ð¾Ð¼, ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐºÐ¸ÑÑÑÑ Ð² Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð°Ñ Ð²ÑÐµ ÑÐ°Ð·Ñ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÂÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð° C Ð¸ D. ÐÐ´Ð½Ð°ÐºÐ¾ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð²Ñ ÑÐ¸ÂÐ±ÑÐ»ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð³Ð¾ ÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ð¿Ð»ÐµÐºÑÐ° Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð»ÑÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÑ ÐµÐ¼Ñ Ñ ÑÑÐµÑÐ³Ð¾Ð»ÑÐ½ÑÐ¼ Ð¾ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐ°Ð½Ð¸ÐµÐ¼ Ð½Ð¾Ð¶ÐºÐ¸, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµ ÑÐ²Ð»ÑÑÑÑÑ ÑÑÐ½Ð¾Ð³ÑÐ°ÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼ Ð¿ÑÐ¸ÂÐ·Ð½Ð°ÐºÐ¾Ð¼ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð½Ð°ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ. Ð' Ð½Ð°ÑÑÂÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð»Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐ°ÑÑÑÐµ Ð²ÑÑÐºÐ°Ð·Ð°Ð½Ð¾ Ð¼Ð½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ, ÑÑÐ¾ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐ²Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð¾Ð±ÑÐ°Ð·ÑÐ¾Ð² ÑÑÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð² Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ°Ñ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐºÐ¸ÑÑÐµÑ Ð½Ð°ÂÑÐ°Ð»Ð¾ ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¼Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÂÑÑÑÑ [ÐÐ°ÑÐ¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð° 1981]. ÐÐ¾ Ð·Ð°Ð²ÑÑÐµÐ½Ð½Ð°Ñ Ð´Ð°ÂÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð²ÐºÐ° ÑÑÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð² ÑÐ²Ð¾Ðµ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð²ÑÐ½ÑÐ´Ð¸ÂÐ»Ð° Ð½ÐµÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÑ Ð¸ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð°ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ¹ Ð²ÑÑÐºÐ°Ð·Ð°ÑÑ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ Ð¾ ÑÑÑÐµÑÑÐ²Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ð¸ Ð´Ð¾ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»ÑÂÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÐ°Ð·Ñ Ð² Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐµ [ÐÐ°ÐºÂÑÐ¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð² 1972; ÐÐ¾Ð±Ð¾Ð»Ñ 1971â"1974]. ÐÑÐ¾ Ð¼Ð½ÐµÂÐ½Ð¸Ðµ Ð±ÑÐ»Ð¾ Ð¿Ð¾Ð´Ð²ÐµÑÐ³Ð½ÑÑÐ¾ ÐºÑÐ¸ÑÐ¸ÐºÐµ [ÐÐ°ÑÐ¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°, ÐÐ°ÑÐ¸Ð½ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹, Ð©ÑÐºÐ¸Ð½ 1976, Ñ. 241â" 253].
Ð' Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð½Ð¸Ðµ Ð³Ð¾Ð´Ñ Ð¸Ð´ÐµÑ Ð¾ Ð´Ð¾ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÑÐ°Ð´Ð¸Ð¸ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð²Ð¾Ð·ÑÐ¾Ð¶Ð´Ð°ÂÐµÑÑÑ Ð² Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð»ÑÐºÐ¾ Ð¸Ð·Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¼Ðµ â" Ð±ÐµÑÂÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»ÑÐ½ÑÐ¹ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´ ÐºÐ°ÑÐ°ÐµÑÑÑ Ð¾ÑÑÑÑÑÑÐ²Ð¸Ñ Ð² Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐµ Ð½Ðµ Ð²Ð¾Ð¾Ð±ÑÐµ Ð²ÑÐµÑ ÑÐ¸ÂÐ±ÑÐ», Ð° ÑÐ¾Ð»ÑÐºÐ¾ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð°. ÐÑÐ½Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸ÐµÐ¼ ÑÐ»ÑÐ¶Ð¸Ñ ÑÐ°ÑÑ Ð¾Ð¶Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ Ð¼ÐµÐ¶Ð´Ñ Ð¾Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸ÐµÐ¼ Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ð° Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÂÑÑÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾ Ð°Ð½ÑÐ¸ÑÐ½ÑÐ¼ ÐºÐ»ÐµÐ¹Ð¼Ð°Ð¼ (Ð² ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐµ 3 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð¸Ð»Ð¸, Ð¿Ð¾ ÐºÑÐ°Ð¹Ð½ÐµÐ¹ Ð¼ÐµÑÐµ, Ð½Ð° ÑÑÐ±ÐµÐ¶Ðµ 3/2 Ð²ÐµÐºÐ¾Ð² â" Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ðµ 2 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ.) Ð¸ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ¼ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐ²Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð² Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð°, Ð¿Ð¾ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾ÂÐ¶ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð. Ð'. ÐÐ°ÑÐ¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ð¹, Ð»Ð¸ÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐ»Ðµ Ð±Ð°Ð»ÂÐºÐ°Ð½ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ñ Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð² Ð±Ð°ÑÑÐ°ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð² 178â"169 Ð³Ð³. Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. .
Ð'ÑÑÐºÐ°Ð·Ð°Ð½Ð° Ð¼ÑÑÐ»Ñ Ð¾ Ð´Ð¾Ð±Ð°Ð»ÐºÐ°Ð½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÐ°Ð·Ðµ Ð² Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐµ, Ð² ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð¹ ÐµÑÐµ Ð½ÐµÑ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ», Ð³ÐµÐ½ÐµÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸ ÑÐ²ÑÐ·Ð°Ð½Ð½ÑÑ Ñ ÐºÐµÐ»ÑÂÑÐ¾-Ð¸Ð»Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ð¹ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼ Ð¼Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð¼ [ÐÐ±ÐµÐ·Ð³Ð°ÑÐ·, ÐÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½ÂÐºÐ¾, ÐÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð»ÐµÐ², ÐÐ°ÑÐ³Ð¾Ð¿Ð¾Ð»ÑÑÐµÐ² 1992, Ñ. 34â"55; ÐÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾, ÐÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð»ÐµÐ² 1991, Ñ. 55â"80]. Ð' ÑÐ°ÐºÐ¾Ð¼ ÑÐ»ÑÑÐ°Ðµ ÑÐ°Ð¼ÑÐ¼Ð¸ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½Ð¸Ð¼Ð¸ Ð² Ð·Ð°ÑÑÂÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐµ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð»Ð¸ Ð±Ñ Ð±ÑÑÑ ÑÐ°ÑÑÐ»ÐµÂÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ñ ÑÐ°ÑÐ¸ÐºÐ°Ð¼Ð¸, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµ Ð¸Ð·Ð²ÐµÑÑÐ½Ñ Ð² Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð°Ñ Ð² ÐµÐ´Ð¸ÂÐ½Ð¸ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¼ ÑÐ»ÑÑÐ°Ðµ, Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° Ð'-ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµ Ð±ÑÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð»Ð¸ Ð²Ð¾ Ð²ÑÐµÑ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸ÂÐ¾Ð´Ð°Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ, Ð° Ð½Ðµ Ð¿Ð¾ Ð»Ð°ÂÑÐµÐ½ D1 Ð²ÐºÐ»ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ½Ð¾, ÐºÐ°Ðº Ð¿Ð¸ÑÑÑ Ð°Ð²ÑÐ¾ÂÑÑ Ð¾Ð±ÑÑÐ¶Ð´Ð°ÐµÐ¼Ð¾Ð¹ Ð³Ð¸Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ·Ñ. Ð¢Ð¾ ÐµÑÑÑ, Ð´Ð»Ñ Ð¿ÐµÑÂÐ²Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÐ°Ð·Ñ â" Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð¸ ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¼Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÂÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ â" Ð¿ÑÐ°ÐºÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸ Ð½ÐµÑ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ ÑÐµÐ¿ÐµÑÐ¾Ð².
ÐÑÐµÐ´ÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð»ÑÐµÑÑÑ Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÑÑÐ°Ñ Ð¸ÑÐºÑÑÑÑÐ²ÐµÐ½ÂÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÑ Ð¸ Ð½Ð°ÑÑÐ½ÑÑÐ¾ÑÑÑ Ð² Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¾ÐµÐ½Ð¸ÑÑ Ð³Ð¸Ð¿Ð¾ÂÑÐµÐ·, ÐºÐ°Ðº Ð¿ÑÑÐµÐ¹ Ð¸ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð¸ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¸ÐºÐ½Ð¾Ð²ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð² ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° Ð² Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÑÑ ÑÑÐµÐ´Ñ, ÑÐ°Ðº Ð¸ Ð¾Ð±Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÐ°Ð·Ñ Ð² ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐµ, Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÂÑÐµÑÑÐ²ÑÑÑÐµÐ¹ ÑÐ°ÑÐ¿ÑÐ¾ÑÑÑÐ°Ð½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð°. ÐÑÐµÐ´Ð»Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐµ Ð³Ð¸Ð¿Ð¾ÂÑÐµÐ·Ñ Ð½Ðµ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³ÑÑ Ð¾Ð±ÑÑÑÐ½Ð¸ÑÑ: Ð²Ð¾-Ð¿ÐµÑÐ²ÑÑ , Ð¿Ð¾ÂÑÐµÐ¼Ñ ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¼Ñ ÐºÐ¾Ð¿ÑÐµÐ²Ð¸Ð´Ð½ÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð¿ÐµÑÐµÐ½ÑÂÐ»Ð¸ Ð±Ð°ÑÑÐ°ÑÐ½Ñ-Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÑÑ, Ð° Ð½Ðµ Ð±Ð°ÑÑÐ°ÑÐ½Ñ Ð¸Ð· ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ ÐÐ¾ÐµÐ½ÐµÑÑÐ¸-ÐÑÐºÐ°ÑÐµÐ²ÐºÐ°; Ð²Ð¾-Ð²ÑÐ¾ÂÑÑÑ â" Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ¼Ñ ÑÑÐ¾ Ð·Ð°Ð¸Ð¼ÑÑÐ²Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ðµ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð¸Ð·Ð¾ÂÑÐ»Ð¾ ÑÐ°Ðº Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½Ð¾, Ð²ÐµÐ´Ñ Ð±Ð°ÑÑÐ°ÑÐ½Ñ Ð½Ð° ÐÐ¾Ð´ÑÂÐ½Ð°Ð²ÑÐµ Ð¸Ð·Ð²ÐµÑÑÐ½Ñ Ñ 30-Ñ Ð³Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð² 3 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð' ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐµ ÑÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð²ÐµÐºÐ°, Ð²Ð¾ Ð²ÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼ ÑÐ»ÑÑÐ°Ðµ, Ð´Ð¾ 213 Ð³. Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. ÑÐºÐ¸ÑÑ Ð²Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐµ Ñ Ð³Ð°Ð»Ð°ÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÑÐ¾ÂÑÐ»Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾Ð´ ÐÐ»ÑÐ²Ð¸ÐµÐ¹. Ð Ð¸Ð¼ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾ Ð² ÑÐ¾ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð¾Ð½Ð¸ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð»Ð¸ Ð²Ð¾ÑÐ¿ÑÐ¸Ð½Ð¸Ð¼Ð°ÑÑ Ð²ÑÐµ Ð½Ð¾Ð²Ð¾Ðµ Ð¸ Ð½ÐµÐ¾Ð±ÑÑÂÐ½Ð¾Ðµ.
Ð¡ÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ¿ÑÐ¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÂÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° Ð¿Ð¾ Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÑÑÐµÐ¼Ñ ÑÐ¸ÑÐ»Ñ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð·Ð½Ð°ÐºÐ¾Ð² ÑÑÐ¾ÑÑ Ð±Ð»Ð¸Ð¶Ðµ Ðº ÐºÐ¾Ð¿ÑÐµÐ²Ð¸Ð´Ð½ÑÐ¼, ÑÐµÐ¼ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»ÐµÑÂÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ [ÐÐ°ÑÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð° 1988, Ñ. 17]. Ð'Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð½Ðµ ÑÐµÐ·Ð¾Ð½ÂÐ½Ð¾ Ð´Ð¾Ð¿ÑÑÑÐ¸ÑÑ, ÑÑÐ¾ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð¸ÑÐµÐ»Ð¸ Ð½Ð°ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¼Ð¸ÑÑÑÑÐµÐ¹ÑÑ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÂÑÑÑÑ ÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ Ð¿ÐµÑÐµÐ½ÑÐ»Ð¸ ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¼Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ñ ÑÑÐµÂÑÐ³Ð¾Ð»ÑÐ½ÑÐ¼ ÑÐ¸ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼ Ð½Ð° Ð½Ð¾Ð¶ÐºÐµ, ÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð´Ð° ÑÑÐ°ÑÂÑÐ²Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð»Ð¸ Ð² Ð±Ð°ÑÑÐ°ÑÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ñ Ð¾Ð´Ð°Ñ Ð½Ð° Ð`Ð°Ð»ÐºÐ°Ð½Ñ. Ð'Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐµ Ñ Ð½Ð¸Ð¼Ð¸ Ð¸Ð· Ð±Ð°Ð»ÐºÐ°Ð½ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ñ Ð¾ÂÐ´Ð¾Ð² Ð² ÐÐ¾Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ¿ÑÐ¾Ð²ÑÐµ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð»Ð¸ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÑÑ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÂÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð¸ÑÐµÐ»Ð¸ ÐºÐµÐ»ÑÑÐ¾-Ð¸Ð»Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ð¹ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿Ð»ÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½ Ð¸ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð½ÐµÑÑÐ¸ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ð½Ð° ÑÐµÑÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¸Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÂÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ. ÐÐ¾Ð´ÑÐ²ÐµÑÐ¶Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð¸ÐµÐ¼ ÑÑÐ¾Ð¼Ñ Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÑ ÑÐ»ÑÐ¶Ð¸ÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°, Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð°Ñ Ð² ÑÐ°Ð¹Ð¾Ð½Ðµ Ñ. Ð`Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð´ÑÐ½ÐºÐ° ÐÐ¸ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ Ð¾Ð±Ð». (ÑÐ¸Ñ. 26, 1). ÐÐ½Ð° Ñ Ð°ÑÐ°ÐºÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð·ÑÐµÑÑÑ ÑÐµÐ¼, ÑÑÐ¾ ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ðº Ñ Ð½ÐµÐµ â" ÑÑÐ¾ ÑÐ°ÑÐ¿Ð»ÑÑÐµÐ½Ð½Ð°Ñ ÑÐ¿Ð¸Ð½ÂÐºÐ°, Ð° Ð½Ð° Ð½Ð¾Ð¶ÐºÐµ Ð½ÐµÑ ÑÐ¸ÑÐºÐ°. ÐÐ¾ ÑÐ°ÐºÐ°Ñ Ð¼Ð¾ÂÐ´Ð¸ÑÐ¸ÐºÐ°ÑÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ñ ÑÑÐµÑÐ³Ð¾Ð»ÑÐ½ÑÐ¼ ÑÐ¸ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼ Ð½Ðµ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð¶Ð¸Ð»Ð°ÑÑ ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð¸ Ð½Ð°ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸ÂÐ½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ.
ÐÐ¼ÐµÑÑÑÑ ÑÐ°ÑÑ Ð¾Ð¶Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð¼ÐµÐ¶Ð´Ñ Ð¸ÑÑÐ»ÐµÂÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð°ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð¸ Ð² Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð²ÐºÐ°Ñ ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÐºÑÐµÑÐ½ÑÑ Ð²Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð¹ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð°, Ð¸ Ð² Ð¾Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ ÑÐµÐ¼Ð¿Ð¾Ð² Ð¸Ñ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð²Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ñ Ð¸ ÑÐ¼ÐµÐ½ÑÐµÐ¼Ð¾ÑÑÐ¸ [ÐÐ°ÑÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð° 1988, Ñ. 12, ÑÐ¸Ñ. 1]. ÐÐ½Ð°ÂÐ»Ð¸Ð· Ð²Ð·Ð°Ð¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð²ÑÑÑÐµÑÐ°ÐµÐ¼Ð¾ÑÑÐ¸ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ½ÑÑ Ð²Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð¹ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÂÐ»Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ Ð´ÑÑÐ³Ð¸Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð² ÑÐ±ÐµÐ¶Ð´Ð°ÐµÑ Ð² Ð¿ÑÐ°Ð²Ð¸Ð»ÑÂÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÐ¸ Ð¼Ð½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ, ÑÑÐ¾ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾ÂÐ³Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° Ð¿ÐµÑÐµÐ¶Ð¸Ð²Ð°ÑÑ Ð²ÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÑ ÐµÐ¼, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµ Ð±ÑÐ»Ð¸ ÑÐ°ÑÐ¿ÑÐ¾ÑÑÑÐ°Ð½ÐµÐ½Ñ Ð² Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸ÂÐ½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐµ. ÐÐ°Ð¸Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÐµÐµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½Ð¸Ðµ Ð²Ð°ÑÐ¸ÂÐ°Ð½ÑÑ, ÐºÐ°Ðº Ð¸Ð·Ð²ÐµÑÑÐ½Ð¾ Ð¿Ð¾ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð°Ð¼ Ð¸Ð· Ð¼Ð¾ÂÐ³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¾Ð² Ð Ð°Ñ Ð½Ñ Ð¸ Ð"ÑÐ¸Ð½ÐµÐ²Ð¸ÑÐ¸ Ð'ÐµÐ»ÑÐºÐ¸, ÑÐ¾Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ð¶Ð´Ð°ÑÑ Ð³Ð»Ð°Ð·ÑÐ°ÑÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð° Ð'2. Ð¢Ð°ÐºÐ¸Ð¼ Ð¾Ð±ÑÐ°Ð·Ð¾Ð¼, Ð¼Ð°ÑÂÐºÐ¸ÑÑÑ Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÐµÑÑ ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¼Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÂÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð¸ ÐµÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð½Ð°Ð», ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÂÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð°, Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð¼ Ð´Ð»Ñ ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐ»ÑÐ¶Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ ÐºÐµÐ»ÑÑÐ¾-Ð¸Ð»Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ð¹ÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ ÐºÐ¾Ð¿ÑÐµÐ²Ð¸Ð´ÂÐ½ÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ, Ð´ÐµÐ¹ÑÑÐ²Ð¸ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ½Ð¾ ÑÐ²Ð»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð½Ð°ÂÐ¸Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÐµÐµ Ð²ÑÑÐ°Ð·Ð¸ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ½ÑÐ¼ ÑÑÐ½Ð¾Ð³ÑÐ°ÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð·Ð½Ð°ÐºÐ¾Ð¼ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð½Ð° Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ ÐµÐµ ÑÑÐ½ÐºÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð½Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ.
ÐÐµÑÐµÑ Ð¾Ð´ Ð¾Ñ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÑÐ¸Ð»Ñ Ðº ÑÐ°Ð½ÂÐ½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ñ Ð² Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐµ Ð¾ÑÂÑÐ°Ð¶Ð°ÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° ÐÐ¼Ð±ÑÐ¾Ð· Ð³Ñ. 12 Ð²Ð°Ñ. 7 â" Ð¿ÑÑÐ¶Ð¸Ð½Ð½ÑÐµ Ñ Ð³Ð»Ð°Ð´ÐºÐ¸Ð¼ ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¿ÑÑÐ¾Ð¼ Ð¸ Ñ ÐºÐ½Ð¾Ð¿ÐºÐ¾Ð¹ Ð½Ð° ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐµ Ð¿Ð»Ð°ÑÑÐ¸Ð½ÑÐ°ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¿ÑÐ¸ÂÐµÐ¼Ð½Ð¸ÐºÐ°. ÐÐ½Ð¸ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÑÑÑÑ 1 Ð². Ð½. Ñ., Ð¿ÑÐµÐ¸Ð¼ÑÑÐµÑÑÐ²ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾ ÐµÐ³Ð¾ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ²Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð²Ð¸Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ [ShchuÂkin 1989, part. 2, ill. 20, 17]. ÐÐ´Ð½Ð° Ð¸Ð· Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð¸ÑÑ Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ñ Ð¸Ð· Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ â3 Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÂÐºÐ° Ð¡ÑÐ±Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð².
Ð ÑÑÐ¾Ð¼Ñ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ñ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð»ÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð²ÑÐµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð´Ð²ÑÐ·Ð½ÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° ÐÐ¼Ð±ÑÐ¾Ð· Ð³Ñ. 15 ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ñ 1 Ð²Ð°Ñ. 1 (Ð¿ÑÐµÐ²Ð´Ð¾Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ) [ÐÐ¼Ð±ÑÐ¾Ð· 1966, Ñ. 48]. ÐÐ½Ð¸ Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½Ñ Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸ÑÑ â162 Ð² ÐÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð³Ð¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐµ, â2 Ð½Ð° Ð"ÐµÐ²Ð¸Ñ Ð"Ð¾ÑÐµ, â56 Ð¸ 58 Ð² Ð§Ð°Ð¿Ð»Ð¸Ð½Ðµ, Ð¿ÑÐ¸ÑÐµÐ¼ Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ â56 Ð² Ð¿Ð°ÑÐµ Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° N1Ð°.
ÐÑÐ¾Ð³Ð½ÑÑÑÐµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð´Ð²ÑÐ·Ð½ÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° ÐÐ¼Ð±ÑÐ¾Ð· Ð³Ñ. 16 Ð¿Ð¾Ð´Ð³ÑÑÐ¿Ð¿Ñ 1 Ð²ÐµÑÑ Ð½ÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ¿ÂÑÐ¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÑÑÑÑ 1 Ð². Ð½. Ñ. [ÐÐ¼ÂÐ±ÑÐ¾Ð· 1966, Ñ. 57]. ÐÐ´Ð¸Ð½ ÑÐºÐ·ÐµÐ¼Ð¿Ð»ÑÑ ÑÐ°ÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½ Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ â25 Ð² Ð§Ð°Ð¿ÂÐ»Ð¸Ð½Ðµ ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐ½Ð¾ Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° N1Ð°. Ð' ÐµÐ´Ð¸Ð½ÑÑÐ²ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð¼ ÑÐºÐ·ÐµÐ¼Ð¿Ð»ÑÑÐµ Ð½Ð° Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÐµÑÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð° Ð´Ð²ÑÑ ÑÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð°Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÂÐ²Ð°Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð° Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ â152 Ð² Ð§Ð°Ð¿Ð»Ð¸ÂÐ½Ðµ. Ð£ Ð½ÐµÐµ ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¿ÑÑ Ð±Ð»Ð¸Ð·ÐºÐ¸Ð¹ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÂÐºÐ¸Ð¼ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°Ð¼, Ð½Ð¾ Ð²Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐ¾ Ð¿ÑÑÐ¶Ð¸Ð½Ñ Ð³Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð²ÂÐºÐ° Ð·Ð°ÐºÐ°Ð½ÑÐ¸Ð²Ð°ÐµÑÑÑ Ð´Ð²ÑÐ¼Ñ Ð·Ð°Ñ Ð²Ð°ÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸, ÐºÐ°Ðº Ð±Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿ÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸. ÐÑÐ° ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð° ÑÐµÐ´ÐºÐ°Ñ Ð´Ð»Ñ Ð'Ð¾ÑÂÑÐ¾ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ ÐÐ²ÑÐ¾Ð¿Ñ, Ð¾Ð½Ð° Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÐ¸ÑÑÑ Ðº ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ñ Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÂÐ²Ð¸Ð½ÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ . Ð. Ð. ÐÐ¼Ð±ÑÐ¾Ð· Ð²ÐºÐ»ÑÂÑÐ°Ð» ÐµÐµ Ð² Ð³ÑÑÐ¿Ð¿Ñ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð½Ð¾Ð¾Ð±ÑÐ°Ð·Ð½ÑÑ Ð¸ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð½Ð¾ÂÐ²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ», Ð¾Ð±ÑÐµÐ´Ð¸Ð½ÑÐµÐ¼ÑÑ ÑÑÑÑÐ¾Ð¹ÂÑÑÐ²Ð¾Ð¼ ÑÐ°ÑÐ½Ð¸ÑÐ° [1966, Ñ. 28]. ÐÐ°Ð¸Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÑÑÐ°Ñ ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐµÐ½ÑÑÐ°ÑÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð²ÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð½Ð°Ð±Ð»ÑÐ´Ð°ÂÐµÑÑÑ Ð² Ð²Ð¾ÑÑÐ¾ÑÐ½ÑÑ ÐÐ»ÑÐ¿Ð°Ñ , ÑÐµÐ²ÐµÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ ÐÑÐ°ÂÐ»Ð¸Ð¸ Ð¸ Ð´ÑÐ½Ð°Ð¹ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¸Ð½ÑÐ¸ÑÑ Ð Ð¸Ð¼Ð° Ð²Ð¾ 2â" 3 Ð²Ð². Ð¤Ð¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ, Ð¿Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð±Ð½ÑÐµ ÑÐ°Ð¿Ð»Ð¸Ð½ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼, Ð¾Ð´Ð½Ð¸ Ð¸ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð°ÑÐµÐ»Ð¸ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÑ Ðº 1 Ð². [ÐÑÑ Ð°ÂÑÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾ 1964, Ñ. 53; ÐÐ¾Ð±Ð¾Ð»Ñ 1971, Ñ. 119], Ð° Ð´ÑÑÐ³Ð¸Ðµ ÐºÐ¾ Ð²ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð¹ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð²Ð¸Ð½Ðµ 1 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. â" ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ñ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð¸ A1 [Shchukin 1989, part. 2.â" ill. 19].
Ð¡Ð°Ð¼ÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½Ð¸Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐ²Ð»ÑÑÑÂÑÑ Ð³Ð»Ð°Ð·ÑÐ°ÑÑÐµ. ÐÐ° Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ ÐÑÑÐµÐ¶ Ð² Ð²ÐµÑÑ ÂÐ½ÐµÐ¼ ÑÐ»Ð¾Ðµ Ð¾Ð´Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¸Ð· ÑÐ¼ Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½ ÑÐºÐ·ÐµÐ¼Ð¿Ð»ÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° ÐÐ»ÑÐ¼Ð³ÑÐµÐ½ 61 (ÑÐ¸Ð¿ IV ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð'. Ð¯Ð¼ÂÐºÐ¸). Ð¢Ð°ÐºÐ¸Ðµ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐºÐ¸ÑÑÑÑ Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ð¾, ÑÐµÑÐµÐ´Ð¸Ð½Ñ Ð¸ Ð´Ð°Ð¶Ðµ ÑÑÐµÑÑÑ ÑÐµÑÐ²ÐµÑÑÑ 2 Ð². [Jamka 1964, s. 75, rys. 55]. ÐÐ´Ð½Ð°ÐºÐ¾ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð¶Ðµ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÂÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð¸ Ð'2Ð° Ð³Ð»Ð°Ð·ÑÐ°ÑÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¶Ðµ Ð½Ðµ Ð²ÑÑÑÐµÑÐ°ÑÑÑÑ [WolÄ giewicz 1974, s. 129â" 152]. Ð¢Ð°ÐºÐ¸Ðµ Ð¶Ðµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½Ñ Ð² ÐºÑÐ»ÑÂÑÑÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¼ ÑÐ»Ð¾Ðµ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð¢Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¸ [ÐÐ°ÐºÑÐ¸ÂÐ¼Ð¾Ð² 1969, Ñ. 45, ÑÐ¸Ñ. 6, 12] Ð¸ Ð½Ð° ÑÐµÑÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾ÂÑÐ¸Ð¸ ÑÐ°Ð·ÑÑÑÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ° Ð² ÐÐ°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÂÑÐ°Ñ [ÐÐµÑÑÐ¾Ð² 1969, Ñ. 45].
Ð' ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ¿ÑÐ¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼ ÑÐµÐ³Ð¸Ð¾Ð½Ðµ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸ÂÐ½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð²ÑÑÐ²Ð»ÐµÐ½Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ, Ð¿Ð¾ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð¸ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¸ÐµÑÑ Ðº Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐµ, Ð½Ð¾ Ð¾Ð±ÑÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµÐ»ÑÑÑÐ²Ð° Ð¸Ñ Ð½Ð°Ñ Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ðº Ð½Ðµ Ð²ÑÐµÐ³Ð´Ð° Ð¸Ð·Ð²ÐµÑÑÐ½Ñ. ÐÐ½Ð¸ ÑÐ¾Ð±ÑÐ°Ð½Ñ Ð. Ð. Ð¦ÑÐ½Ð´ÑÐ¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ [1988, Ñ. 85â"94, ÑÐ¸Ñ. 1, ÑÐ°Ð±Ð». 1]. ÐÑÐ¾ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ð±Ð»Ð¸Ð·ÐºÐ¸Ðµ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð°Ð¼ M, N, O-ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ (ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐ° 1 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. â" Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ð° Ð½. Ñ.) Ð¸Ð· Ð"ÑÐ¸ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐµÐ², ÐÐ°ÑÑÂÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÑÐµÐ², Ð¢Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð¾Ðº, Ð'Ð¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð², ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð° Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´ÂÐ½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÑ ÐµÐ¼Ñ Â«Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ¿ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾Â» ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° (1 Ð².) Ð¸Ð· ÐÐ¾ÑÐ¶ÐµÐ¹, Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¾Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¸Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð½ÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° ÐÐ»ÑÐ¼Ð³ÑÐµÐ½ 84 (Ð²ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð¹ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð²Ð¸Ð½Ñ 2 Ð².) Ð¸Ð· Ð ÑÐ´ÑÐºÐ¾Ð² Ð¸ ÐÐ°ÑÐµÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹, Ð³Ð»Ð°Ð·ÑÐ°ÑÑÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÂÐ»Ñ Ð¸Ð· ÐÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð½ÑÐ¸ Ð¸ ÐÐ¸ÐµÐ²ÑÐ¸Ð½Ñ. Ð`Ð¾Ð»ÑÑÐ°Ñ ÑÐ°ÑÑÑ Ð¸Ð· Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð»Ð° Ð±ÑÑÑ ÑÐ²ÑÐ·Ð°Ð½Ð° Ñ Ð¿Ð°Ð¼ÑÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ.
Ð Ð°ÑÑÐ¼Ð¾ÑÑÐµÐ² ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»ÑÐ½ÑÐ¹ ÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ð¿Ð»ÐµÐºÑ Ð·Ð°ÂÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ ÑÐµÑ ÑÐµÐ³Ð¸Ð¾Ð½Ð¾Ð², Ð³Ð´Ðµ Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÐµÐºÐ°Ð»Ð¸ Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÐµÑÑÑ ÐµÐµ ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¼Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ, Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶Ð½Ð¾ ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÑ Ð²ÑÐ²Ð¾Ð´, ÑÑÐ¾ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ¹ÑÐ¸Ðµ ÑÐ¸ÂÐ±ÑÐ»Ñ Ð¸Ð· Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¾Ð² Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÑÑÑ Ðº ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ñ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ñ B1a, B1b, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ¹, Ð¿Ð¾ Ð. Ð`. Ð©ÑÐºÐ¸Ð½Ñ, Ð½Ð° ÑÑÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÐµÑÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¸Ð¸ ÑÐ¾Ð¾ÑÂÐ²ÐµÑÑÑÐ²ÑÐµÑ Ð¿ÐµÑÐµÑ Ð¾Ð´Ð½Ð¾Ð¼Ñ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð¸ Ð¾Ñ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÂÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ðº ÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ñ. Ð' Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð°Ñ Ð¶Ðµ Ð¿Ð¾ÂÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¹ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐ²Ð»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð¾ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÐ½ÑÐµ ÑÐºÐ·ÐµÐ¼Ð¿Ð»ÑÂÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» ÑÐ»ÐµÐ´ÑÑÑÐµÐ³Ð¾ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÑÐ°Ð¿Ð° Ð¸ ÑÑÐ¸Ð»Ñ â" ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ B2, ÑÐ¸Ð³Ð½Ð°Ð»Ð¸Ð·Ð¸ÑÑÑÑÐ¸Ðµ ÑÐ¸Ð½Ð°Ð» Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÂÑÑÑÑ Ð¸ Ð½Ð° Ð¡ÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ¼ ÐÐ¾Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ¿ÑÐ¾Ð²ÑÐµ. ÐÐ¼ÐµÑÑÑÑ Ð¸ Ð½ÐµÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµ Ð´ÑÑÐ³Ð¸Ðµ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´Ð¼ÐµÑÑ, Ð¼Ð°ÑÐºÐ¸ÑÑÂÑÑÐ¸Ðµ ÑÐ¸Ð½Ð°Ð» Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ, â" ÑÑÐ¾ Ð´Ð²Ðµ Ð¿ÑÑÐ¶ÐºÐ¸ Ð¸ ÑÐ¿Ð¾ÑÐ° Ð³ÑÑÐ¿Ð¿Ñ 1, Ð¿Ð¾ Ð. Ð"Ð¾Ð´Ð»Ð¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ñ [PZP 1981, S. 174], Ð½Ð°Ð¹ÂÐ´ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐµ Ð½Ð° Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ ÐÐ¾Ð²ÑÐµ Ð`ÐµÐ·ÑÐ°Ð´Ð¸ÑÐ¸ Ð² ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¼ ÑÐ»Ð¾Ðµ Ð¸ Ð¾Ð±ÑÐµÐºÑÐ°Ñ Ð²Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐµ Ñ Ð·Ð°ÂÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÐµÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ÐºÐ¾Ð¹. ÐÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð¾Ð½Ð¸ Ðº ÑÐµÑÐµÐ´Ð¸Ð½Ðµ Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ Ð´Ð°Ð¶Ðµ Ð²ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð¹ Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð²Ð¸Ð½Ðµ 2 Ð². [Ð¢ÐµÑÐ¿Ð¸Ð»Ð¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹, ÐÐ±Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð½Ð° 1992, Ñ. 79]. Ð¨Ð¿Ð¾ÂÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð² Ð½Ð°Ð¹Ð´ÐµÐ½Ñ ÑÐ°ÐºÐ¶Ðµ Ð½Ð° ÐÐ±Ð¾ÂÐ»Ð¾Ð½Ð¸ Ð¸ ÐÐ¾Ð½Ð°ÑÑÑÑÑÐºÐµ. Ð¢Ð°ÐºÐ¸Ð¼ Ð¾Ð±ÑÐ°Ð·Ð¾Ð¼, Ð¸ Ð² ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´ Ð'2 Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð´Ð¾Ð»Ð¶Ð°Ð»Ð¸ ÑÑÐ½ÐºÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð½Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°ÑÑ Ð¾ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÐ½ÑÐµ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÂÐºÐ¸Ðµ Ð¿Ð°Ð¼ÑÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¸.
Ð'Ð¾Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÑ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ, Ñ Ð°ÑÐ°ÐºÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð·ÑÑÑÐ¸Ðµ ÑÑÐ°Ð¿Ñ Ð¸ ÑÐµÐ¼ÂÐ¿Ñ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð²Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ñ Ð¾ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÐ½ÑÑ ÐµÐµ ÑÐµÐ³Ð¸Ð¾Ð½Ð¾Ð², Ð½ÐµÐ¾ÂÐ´Ð½Ð¾ÐºÑÐ°ÑÐ½Ð¾ Ð¿Ð¾Ð´Ð½Ð¸Ð¼Ð°Ð»Ð¸ÑÑ Ð² Ð½Ð°ÑÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð»Ð¸ÑÐµÂÑÐ°ÑÑÑÐµ. ÐÐ¼ÐµÑÑÑÑ Ð²Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð°Ð½ÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¾ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð¿ÐµÂÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð½Ð° Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð°Ñ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¹, Ð² ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÑ Ð¾ÑÑÐ°Ð¶Ð°ÑÑÑÑ Ð¸Ð·Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð² Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÂÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐµ, Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð¸ÑÑÐµÐ´ÑÐ¸Ðµ Ð·Ð° Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÑÂÑÐ¸Ðµ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð¼ÐµÐ¶ÑÑÐºÐ¸ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÂÐ½Ð¸, ÑÐ°ÑÑÐ¾ ÑÐ²ÑÐ·Ð°Ð½Ð½ÑÐµ Ñ Ð²Ð½ÐµÑÐ½Ð¸Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐ¾Ð±ÑÑÐ¸ÂÑÐ¼Ð¸ (ÑÐ³ÑÐ¾Ð·Ð¾Ð¹ Ð²Ð½ÐµÑÐ½ÐµÐ³Ð¾ Ð½Ð°Ð¿Ð°Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ, Ð¸Ð·Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð¸ÐµÐ¼ Ð²Ð½ÐµÑÐ½Ð¸Ñ ÑÐ¾ÑÐ³Ð¾Ð²ÑÑ ÑÐ²ÑÐ·ÐµÐ¹ Ð¸ Ñ. Ð´.). ÐÐ° Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸ÑÑ Ð¿ÑÐ°ÐºÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸ Ð½ÐµÑ Ð·Ð°ÐºÑÑÑÑÑ ÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ð¿Ð»ÐµÐºÑÐ¾Ð², Ð¼Ð°Ð»Ð¾ ÑÐµÐ»ÑÑ ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ´Ð¾Ð², ÑÐµÐ´ÐºÐ¸ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÑÑÐ¸Ðµ Ð²ÐµÑÐ¸. Ð¢ÑÑÐ´Ð½Ð¾ ÑÐ»Ð¾Ð²Ð¸ÑÑ Ð½ÑÐ°Ð½ÂÑÑ Ð² Ð¸Ð·Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð¸ÑÑ Ð¾ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÐ½ÑÑ ÐºÐ°ÑÐµÐ³Ð¾ÑÐ¸Ð¹ Ð²ÐµÑÐµÐ¹, Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÐ¾Ð¼Ñ ÑÐ¸ÐºÑÐ¸ÑÑÑÑÑÑ Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÐµÐµ Ð³Ð»Ð¾Ð±Ð°Ð»ÑÐ½ÑÐµ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ¾Ð±ÑÐ°Ð·Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ â" Ð²Ð¾Ð·Ð²ÐµÐ´ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ Ð´Ð¾Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð½Ð¸ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ½ÑÑ ÑÐºÑÐµÐ¿Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¹, Ð¸Ð·Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ Ñ Ð°ÂÑÐ°ÐºÑÐµÑÐ° Ð¸Ð¼Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÐ½ÑÑ Ð¸Ð·Ð´ÐµÐ»Ð¸Ð¹, Ð¸Ð·Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ ÑÐ¾ÂÐ¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐ°ÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð½Ð°ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÑ Ð¿ÑÐ½ÐºÑÐ¾Ð² Ð¸ Ñ. Ð´. Ð"ÑÑÂÐ³Ð¾Ðµ Ð´ÐµÐ»Ð¾ â" Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¸: Ð·Ð°ÐºÑÑÑÑÐµ ÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ð¿ÂÐ»ÐµÐºÑÑ, Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÑÑÐ¾Ðµ ÐºÐ¾Ð»Ð¸ÑÐµÑÑÐ²Ð¾ ÑÐµÐ»ÑÑ ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ´Ð¾Ð², ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ», ÑÐ°Ð·Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ½ÑÐµ Ð²Ð¸Ð´Ñ ÑÐºÑÐ°ÑÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¹, Ð¾ÑÑÂÐ¶Ð¸Ðµ, Ð¾ÑÑÐ´Ð¸Ñ ÑÑÑÐ´Ð°, ÑÐ°Ð·Ð½Ð¾Ð¾Ð±ÑÐ°Ð·Ð¸Ðµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÂÐ±Ð°Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð¾Ð±ÑÑÐ´Ð°. ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐµÐ»ÑÑÐ¸Ñ Ð²Ð·Ð°Ð¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð²ÑÑÑÐµÑÐ°ÐµÐ¼Ð¾ÑÑÐ¸ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ½ÑÑ Ð°ÑÑÐµÑÐ°ÐºÑÐ¾Ð² Ð² Ð¾Ð´Ð½Ð¾Ð¼ Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð²Ð¾Ð»ÑÐµÑ Ð¾ÑÐ¼ÐµÑÐ°ÑÑ Ð¼Ð°ÂÐ»ÐµÐ¹ÑÐ¸Ðµ Ð¸Ð·Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð² Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¼ ÐºÐ¾Ð¼ÂÐ¿Ð»ÐµÐºÑÐµ, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµ, Ð² ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÐµÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¼ ÑÑÐµÑÐµ, Ð¸ ÑÐ¾ÂÐ¾ÑÐ²ÐµÑÑÑÐ²ÑÑÑ ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¼Ð°Ð¼ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð²Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÂÑÑÑÑ.
ÐÐ´Ð½Ð¸Ð¼ Ð¸Ð· Ð¿ÐµÑÐ²ÑÑ ÑÐ°Ð·ÑÐ°Ð±Ð¾ÑÐ°Ð» Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð¸ÂÐ·Ð°ÑÐ¸Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð®. Ð'. ÐÑÂÑ Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾. Ð'ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»Ð¸Ð² Ð´Ð²Ð° ÑÑÐ°Ð¿Ð° â" 1 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð¸ 1 Ð². Ð½. Ñ., Ð¾Ð½ Ð¾ÑÐ¼ÐµÑÐ¸Ð», ÑÑÐ¾ Ð² Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»ÑÂÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐµ Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÑÑÐ¸Ñ Ð¸Ð·Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¹ Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ¼ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ðµ Ð¿Ð¾ ÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ñ ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½Ð¸Ð¼ Ð½Ðµ Ð½Ð°Ð±Ð»ÑÐ´Ð°ÐµÑÑÑ [ÐÑÑ Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾ 1964, Ñ. 54].
Ð. Ð". ÐÐ¾Ð±Ð¾Ð»Ñ Ð²ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»Ð¸Ð» ÑÑÐ¸ ÑÑÐ°Ð´Ð¸Ð¸ Ð² ÑÐ°Ð·ÂÐ²Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ. ÐÐµÑÐ²Ð°Ñ ÑÑÐ°ÂÐ´Ð¸Ñ â" Ð´Ð¾ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»ÑÐ½Ð°Ñ â" Ð³ÐµÐ½ÐµÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸ ÑÐ²ÑÂÐ·Ð°Ð½Ð° Ñ Ð¼Ð¸Ð»Ð¾Ð³ÑÐ°Ð´ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐ¾Ð¹ Ð¸ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÂÐµÑÑÑ Ð¾Ñ ÑÐµÑÐµÐ´Ð¸Ð½Ñ 3 Ð´Ð¾ ÑÐµÑÐµÐ´Ð¸Ð½Ñ 2 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð'ÑÐ¾ÑÑÑ ÑÑÐ°Ð´Ð¸Ñ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐºÐ¸ÑÑÑÑ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÑ ÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð¾Ñ ÑÐµÑÐµÐ´Ð¸Ð½Ñ 2 Ð´Ð¾ ÑÐµÑÐµÐ´Ð¸Ð½Ñ 1 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð¢ÑÐµÑÑÑ Ð¾Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÐµÑÂÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ Ð¾Ñ ÑÐµÑÐµÂÐ´Ð¸Ð½Ñ 1 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð´Ð¾ Ð½Ð°ÑÐ°Ð»Ð° 2 Ð². Ð½. Ñ. [ÐÐ¾ÂÐ±Ð¾Ð»Ñ 1971; 1974]. ÐÐ´Ð½Ð°ÐºÐ¾ ÑÐ°ÐºÐ¾Ðµ ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ðµ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð´ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð² Ð¿Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ð°Ð¼ Ð½Ðµ ÑÐ¾Ð¾ÑÐ²ÐµÑÂÑÑÐ²ÑÐµÑ ÑÐµÐ¼Ð¿Ð°Ð¼ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð²Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ñ Ð´Ð°Ð¶Ðµ Ñ ÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸Ñ ÐºÐµÐ»ÑÑÐ¾Ð², ÑÐµÐ¼ Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÐµÐµ, Ð½Ðµ Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÑ ÑÐ¾Ð¾ÑÐ²ÐµÑÑÑÐ²Ð¾ÂÐ²Ð°ÑÑ ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¼Ð°Ð¼ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð²Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¾ÐºÑÐ°Ð¸Ð½Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¸Ð· Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð·Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð½ÑÑ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑ. Ð'ÑÐµ ÑÑÐ¾ Ð²ÑÂÐ·Ð²Ð°Ð»Ð¾ ÐºÑÐ¸ÑÐ¸ÐºÑ Ð² Ð½Ð°ÑÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð»Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐ°ÑÑÑÐµ [ÐÐ°ÑÂÐ¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°, ÐÐ°ÑÐ¸Ð½ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹, Ð©ÑÐºÐ¸Ð½ 1976, Ñ. 241â" 253].
Ð. Ð'. ÐÐ°ÐºÑÐ¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð² ÑÐ°Ð·Ð´ÐµÐ»Ð¸Ð» Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼Ñ ÑÑÐ½ÐºÂÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð½Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð½Ð° Ð¿ÐµÑÐ²ÑÐ¹ (ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½Ð¸Ð¹) Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´ â" Ð¾Ñ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ¹ ÑÑÐµÑÐ¸ 3 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. Ð´Ð¾ ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐ° 1 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. (Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ Ð´Ð¾ ÑÐµÑÐµÐ´Ð¸Ð½Ñ 1 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ.); Ð²ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð¹ (Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´ÂÐ½Ð¸Ð¹ Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½Ð¸Ð¹) Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´ Ð¾Ñ ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐ° 1 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. (Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ Ð¾Ñ ÑÐµÑÐµÐ´Ð¸Ð½Ñ 1 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ.) Ð´Ð¾ ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÂÑÐ° 1 Ð². Ð½. Ñ. (Ð¸Ð»Ð¸: Ð´Ð¾ ÑÐµÑÐµÐ´Ð¸Ð½Ñ 1 Ð².); ÑÑÐµÂÑÐ¸Ð¹ (Ð·Ð°ÐºÐ»ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ½ÑÐ¹ Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð´Ð½Ð¸Ð¹) Ð¾Ñ ÑÑÂÐ±ÐµÐ¶Ð° 1/2 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. (Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ Ð¾Ñ ÑÐµÑÐµÐ´Ð¸Ð½Ñ 1 Ð². Ð´Ð¾ Ð½. Ñ. ) Ð¸ Ð´Ð¾ ÐºÐ¾Ð½ÑÐ° 2 Ð². [ÐÐ°ÐºÑÐ¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð² 1972; 1982; 1994, Ñ. 51]. Ð'ÑÐ²Ð¾Ð´Ñ Ð. Ð'. ÐÐ°ÐºÑÐ¸ÂÐ¼Ð¾Ð²Ð° Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ñ, Ð³Ð»Ð°Ð²Ð½ÑÐ¼ Ð¾Ð±ÑÐ°Ð·Ð¾Ð¼, Ð½Ð° Ð¼Ð°ÂÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð°Ñ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¹ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÂÑÑÑÑ.
ÐÐ¾Ð´ÑÐ¾Ð±Ð½ÑÐ¹ Ð°Ð½Ð°Ð»Ð¸Ð· Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±Ð°Ð»ÑÐ½ÑÑ ÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ð¿ÂÐ»ÐµÐºÑÐ¾Ð² Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÑ Ð´Ð¾Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð½Ð¸ÑÑ Ð¸ Ð´ÐµÑÐ°Ð»Ð¸Ð·Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°ÑÑ ÑÑÑ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸Ñ, ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÐ°Ñ Ð¿ÑÐ°ÐºÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸ Ð½Ðµ Ð²ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÐµÑ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´ Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð¶Ð´ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð¸ ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¼Ð¸ÂÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ. Ð Ð½Ð°ÑÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµÐ¼Ñ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÂÐ½Ð¸ ÑÐ°Ð·ÑÐ°Ð±Ð¾ÑÐ°Ð½Ð¾ Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð»ÑÐºÐ¾ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð¹ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð² ÑÐµÐ»Ð¾Ð¼ Ð¸Ð»Ð¸ ÐµÐµ ÑÐµÐ³Ð¸Ð¾Ð½Ð¾Ð², ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»Ð°Ð½Ð½ÑÑ Ð½Ð° Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð°Ñ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¾Ð².
Ð. Ð'. ÐÐ°ÑÐ¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°, Ð¸ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ´ÑÑ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ ÐÑÐ¸Ð¿ÑÑÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÐÐ¾ÂÐ»ÐµÑÑÑ, Ð¿ÑÐ¸ÑÐ»Ð° Ðº Ð²ÑÐ²Ð¾Ð´Ñ Ð¾ Ð½ÐµÐ²Ð¾Ð·Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶Ð½Ð¾ÑÂÑÐ¸ Ð¸ÑÐ¿Ð¾Ð»ÑÐ·Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð·Ð½Ð°ÐºÐ¾Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±Ð°Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¾ÂÐ³Ð¾ Ð¾Ð±ÑÑÐ´Ð° Ð´Ð»Ñ ÑÐµÑÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð²Ð¾Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð² Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾ÂÐ³Ð¸Ð¸ Ð¸ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð¸. ÐÐ°Ð¸Ð±Ð¾Ð»ÐµÐµ Ð¶Ðµ ÑÑÑÐºÐ¸ÂÐ¼Ð¸ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼Ð¸ Ð¸Ð½Ð´Ð¸ÐºÐ°ÑÐ¾ÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ Ð²ÑÂÑÑÑÐ¿Ð°ÑÑ ÐºÐµÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ÐºÐ°, ÐºÐ°Ðº ÑÐ°Ð¼ÑÐ¹ Ð¼Ð°ÑÑÐ¾Ð²ÑÐ¹ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð», Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ â" ÑÐ°Ð¼ÑÐ¹ Ð¸Ð·Ð¼ÐµÐ½ÑÐ¸ÂÐ²ÑÐ¹ Ð²Ð¾ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð¸ Ð²Ð¸Ð´ ÑÐºÑÐ°ÑÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¹. ÐÐ¾Ð»ÐµÑÂÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¸ Ð¾Ð½Ð° ÑÐ°ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð»Ð° Ð½Ð° ÑÐµÂÑÑÑÐµ ÑÐ°Ð·Ñ Ð¸ Ð²ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»Ð¸Ð»Ð° Ð¿ÐµÑÐµÑ Ð¾Ð´Ð½ÑÐµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð´-ÑÐ°Ð·Ñ. Ð'ÑÐµ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¸, Ð¿Ð¾ ÐµÐµ Ð¼Ð½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ, Ð²Ð¾Ð·Ð½Ð¸ÐºÐ»Ð¸ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð¼ÐµÑÐ½Ð¾ Ð² Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ð½ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´ Ð¸ Ð¾ÑÂÐ½Ð¾Ð²Ð½ÑÐµ ÑÐ°Ð·Ñ Ð¸Ñ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð²Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¿Ð°Ð´Ð°Ð»Ð¸, Ñ Ð¾ÑÑ ÐÑÐ²ÐµÑÐ¶Ð¸ÑÐ¸ Ð¸ Ð'Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¸Ð½Ð¾ Ð¿ÑÐµÐºÑÐ°ÑÐ¸Ð»Ð¸ ÑÑÐ½ÐºÂÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð½Ð¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°ÑÑ Ð½ÐµÐ¼Ð½Ð¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÐ°Ð½ÑÑÐµ, ÑÐµÐ¼ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÂÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ¸ Ð² Ð'ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ¼Ð¸ÑÐ°Ñ , Ð½Ð¾ ÑÐ°ÐºÐ¶Ðµ Ð² ÑÐµÑÐ²ÐµÑÑÐ¾Ð¹ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÐ°Ð·Ðµ [ÐÐ°ÑÐ¿Ð°ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð° 1981, Ñ. 15â"16]. ÐÐµÐ´Ð¾ÑÑÐ°ÑÐºÐ¸ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´Ð»Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¿ÐµÂÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð·Ð°Ð»Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÐ½Ñ, Ð½Ð° Ð¼Ð¾Ð¹ Ð²Ð·Ð³Ð»ÑÐ´, Ð² Ð²Ð¸Ð·ÑÐ°Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¼ÐµÑÐ¾Ð´Ð¸ÐºÐµ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð¸ ÐºÐµÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ÂÐºÐ¸, Ð¿ÑÐ¸ ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð¹ Ð½Ðµ Ð¾Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ñ ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ ÐºÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð²ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ ÐµÐµ ÐºÐ»Ð°ÑÑÐ¸ÑÐ¸ÐºÐ°ÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð½ÂÐ½ÑÑ ÑÑÐ¾Ð²Ð½ÐµÐ¹. ÐÑÐ¾ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð²Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ñ Ðº ÑÑÐ±ÑÐµÐºÑÐ¸ÂÐ²Ð¸Ð·Ð¼Ñ Ð² Ð²ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð² Ð¸ Ð½ÐµÐ²Ð¾Ð·Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶Ð½Ð¾ÂÑÑÐ¸ Ð½Ðµ ÑÐ¾Ð»ÑÐºÐ¾ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð²ÐµÑÐºÐ¸ Ð¿ÑÐ°Ð²Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÐ¸ Ð²ÑÂÐ²Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð² Ð°Ð²ÑÐ¾ÑÐ°, Ð½Ð¾ Ð¸ Ð¸ÑÐ¿Ð¾Ð»ÑÐ·Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ñ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´Ð»Ð¾ÂÐ¶ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð¸ Ð´ÑÑÐ³Ð¸Ð¼Ð¸ Ð¸ÑÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð°ÑÐµÂÐ»ÑÐ¼Ð¸.
Ð"Ð»Ñ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð¾Ð² Ð²ÐµÑÑ Ð½ÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ¿ÑÐ¾Ð²ÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð²Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð°Ð½ÑÐ° ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð¼ÐµÑÐ¾ÂÐ´Ð¾Ð¼ ÐºÐ¾ÑÑÐµÐ»ÑÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¸Ð½Ð´Ð¸ÂÐºÐ°ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð² Ñ Ð³Ð»Ð¸Ð½ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÐ´Ð¾Ð¹ Ð²Ð¾ÑÐ¿Ð¾Ð»ÑÐ·Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð»ÂÑÑ Ð. Ð. ÐÐ±Ð»Ð¾Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹. ÐÐ¾Ð»Ð¾Ð¶Ð¸ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÑÐ¾ÂÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ ÐµÐ³Ð¾ ÑÐ°Ð±Ð¾ÑÑ ÑÐ²Ð»ÑÐµÑÑÑ ÑÐ¾, ÑÑÐ¾ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾ÂÐ»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ñ ÐºÐµÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ÐºÐ¸ Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð²ÐµÐ´ÐµÐ½Ð° Ñ Ð¿Ð¾ÂÐ¼Ð¾ÑÑÑ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÐ¼Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð°Ð»Ð³Ð¾ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¼Ð° Ð¿Ð¾ÑÂÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð¾Ð²Ð°ÑÐµÐ»ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð´ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð½Ð° ÐºÐ»Ð°ÑÑÑ. ÐÐ´Ð½Ð°ÂÐºÐ¾ Ð¸ ÑÑÐ° ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ñ ÑÑÑÐ°Ð´Ð°ÐµÑ Ð½ÐµÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ¼Ð¸ Ð½ÐµÐ´Ð¾ÑÑÐ°ÑÐºÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ [ÐÐ°ÑÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð° 1989, Ñ. 34â"37; ÐÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾, ÐÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð»ÐµÐ² 1992, Ñ. 55â"56; ÐÐ±ÐµÂÐ·Ð³Ð°ÑÐ·, ÐÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾, ÐÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð»ÐµÐ², ÐÐ°ÑÐ³Ð¾Ð¿Ð¾Ð»ÑÂÑÐµÐ² 1992, Ñ. 34â"41]. Ð'ÑÐ·ÑÐ²Ð°ÐµÑ ÑÐ°ÐºÐ¶Ðµ Ð²Ð¾Ð·ÂÑÐ°Ð¶ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð°, Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´Ð»Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð°Ñ Ð. Ð. ÐÐ±Ð»Ð¾Ð¼ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼ [ÐÐ°ÑÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð° 1988, Ñ. 11], Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐºÐ¾Ð»ÑÐºÑ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ð¸Ð³ÑÐ°ÑÑ Ð½Ðµ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐ»ÐµÐ´Ð½ÑÑ ÑÐ¾Ð»Ñ Ð² Ð²ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¸ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð¾Ð².
ÐÐ¿ÑÐ±Ð»Ð¸ÐºÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½ ÐµÑÐµ Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ð½ Ð²Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð°Ð½Ñ Ð¼ÐµÑÐ¾ÂÐ´Ð¸ÐºÐ¸ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ ÑÐ»ÐµÐ½ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸ÂÐ½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾ Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð°Ð¼ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÂÐ½ÑÑ ÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ð¿Ð»ÐµÐºÑÐ¾Ð². ÐÐ½ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½ Ð½Ð° Ð¸ÑÐ¿Ð¾Ð»ÑÂÐ·Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ð¸ ÐºÐ»Ð°ÑÑÐµÑÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð¸ ÐºÐµÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ÐºÐ¸ Ð¸ ÐºÐ¾ÑÑÐµÐ»ÑÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð²ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÑ Ð³ÑÑÐ¿Ð¿ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÐ´Ñ Ñ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐµÐ¿ÐµÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ Ð¾ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÑÐ½Ð¾ Ð´Ð»Ñ Ð¶ÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¸ Ð¼ÑÐ¶ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¹ [ÐÐ±ÐµÑÐ³Ð°ÂÑÐ·, ÐÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾, ÐÑÑÐ°Ð²Ð»ÐµÐ², ÐÐ°ÑÐ³Ð¾Ð¿Ð¾Ð»ÑÑÐµÐ² 1992, Ñ. 34â"45]. ÐÑÐ¾Ñ Ð¼ÐµÑÐ¾Ð´ Ð±ÑÐ» Ð¸ÑÐ¿Ð¾Ð»ÑÂÐ·Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½ Ð'. Ð. ÐÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½ÐºÐ¾ Ð² ÐµÐ³Ð¾ ÑÐ°Ð±Ð¾ÑÐµ Â«ÐÐµÐ»ÑÂÑÑÐºÐ°Ñ Ð²ÑÐ°Ð»ÑÂ» Ð¸ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ°Ñ ÐºÑÐ»ÑÑÑÑÐ°Â» . ÐÐ¾ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð´ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð³ÑÐµÐ±ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ð¹ Ð½Ð° Ð¼ÑÐ¶ÂÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ Ð¸ Ð¶ÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ Ð¾ÐºÐ°Ð·ÑÐ²Ð°ÐµÑÑÑ Ð² Ð·Ð½Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÐµÐ»ÑÂÐ½Ð¾Ð¹ Ð¼ÐµÑÐµ ÑÑÐ»Ð¾Ð²Ð½ÑÐ¼, Ð¿Ð¾ÑÐºÐ¾Ð»ÑÐºÑ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¾ Ð½Ð° ÐºÐ¾Ð¼Ð¿Ð»ÐµÐºÑÐ°Ñ Ð²ÐµÑÐµÐ¹, Ð° Ð½Ðµ Ð½Ð° ÑÐµÐ·ÑÐ»ÑÑÐ°ÂÑÐ°Ñ Ð°Ð½ÑÑÐ¾Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð³Ð¾ Ð°Ð½Ð°Ð»Ð¸Ð·Ð°. Ð' Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´Ð»Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð¹ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð¸ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÐ´Ñ Ð½Ðµ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð½Ð¸Ð¼Ð°ÂÐ»Ð¸ÑÑ Ð²Ð¾ Ð²Ð½Ð¸Ð¼Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ðµ ÑÐ³Ð»Ð¾Ð²ÑÐµ Ð¿Ð¾ÐºÐ°Ð·Ð°ÑÐµÐ»Ð¸ Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÂÐ¿Ð¾ÑÑÐ¸Ð¹ (ÑÑÐµÐ¿ÐµÐ½Ñ Ð¾ÑÐºÐ»Ð¾Ð½ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾ÑÑÐ¸ ÑÐµÐ¹ÐºÐ¸ Ð¸ Ð²ÑÐ¿ÑÐºÐ»Ð¾ÑÑÐ¸ Ð¿Ð»ÐµÑÐ¸ÐºÐ¾Ð²), ÐºÐ¾ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐµ ÑÐ²Ð»ÑÑÑÂÑÑ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ð¼Ð¸ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð·Ð½Ð°ÐºÐ°Ð¼Ð¸. Ð, Ð½Ð°ÂÐºÐ¾Ð½ÐµÑ, Ð¸Ð³Ð½Ð¾ÑÐ¸ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð°Ð½Ð¸Ðµ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÐ¸Ð¹, ÑÐ²ÑÂÐ·Ð°Ð½Ð½ÑÑ Ñ Ð¿Ð°ÑÐ°Ð¼ÐµÑÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐµÐ¹ÐºÐ¸ (ÐµÐµ Ð´Ð¸Ð°ÂÐ¼ÐµÑÑÐ° Ð¸ Ð²ÑÑÐ¾ÑÑ), Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÑ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð²ÐµÑÑÐ¸ Ðº Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÂÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ Ð² Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ð½ ÐºÐ»Ð°ÑÑÐµÑ-ÑÐ¸Ð¿ ÑÐ¾ÑÑÐ´Ð¾Ð² ÐºÐ»Ð°ÑÂÑÐ° Ð (Ñ ÑÐµÐ¹ÐºÐ°Ð¼Ð¸) Ð¸ ÐºÐ»Ð°ÑÑÐ° Ð` (Ð±ÐµÐ· ÑÐµÐµÐº). Ð'ÑÐµ ÑÑÐ¾ Ð½Ðµ Ð¿Ð¾Ð·Ð²Ð¾Ð»ÑÐµÑ Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð·Ð½Ð°ÑÑ ÐºÐ»Ð°ÑÑÐµÑÐ½ÑÐ¹ Ð¼ÐµÑÐ¾Ð´ Ð² ÐµÐ³Ð¾ Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´Ð»Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð¼ Ð²Ð¸Ð´Ðµ Ð±ÐµÐ·ÑÐ¿ÑÐµÑÂÐ½ÑÐ¼, Ð°, Ð³Ð»Ð°Ð²Ð½Ð¾Ðµ, Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð³Ð¾Ð´Ð½ÑÐ¼ Ð´Ð»Ñ ÑÐ°Ð·ÑÐ°Ð±Ð¾ÑÂÐºÐ¸ Ð²Ð¾Ð¿ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾Ð² Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð¸Ð·Ð°ÑÐ¸Ð¸.
ÐÐ²ÑÐ¾ÑÑ Ð¼ÐµÑÐ¾Ð´Ð° ÑÑÐ²ÐµÑÐ¶Ð´Ð°ÑÑ, ÑÑÐ¾ ÐºÐ»Ð°ÂÑÑÐµÑÐ½ÑÐ¹ Ð¼ÐµÑÐ¾Ð´ Â«Ð²ÑÑÐ²Ð»ÑÐµÑ Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾Ð²Ð½ÑÐµ Ð·Ð°ÐºÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð¼ÐµÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÐ¸Â» Ð¼Ð°ÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð°Ð»Ð°. Ð'Ð¾Ð·Ð¼Ð¾Ð¶Ð½Ð¾, Ð² ÐºÐ°ÂÐºÐ¾Ð¹-ÑÐ¾ Ð¼ÐµÑÐµ ÑÑÐ¾ Ð¸ ÑÐ°Ðº. ÐÐ¾ ÐºÐ»Ð°ÑÑÐµÑÐ½ÑÐ¹ Ð¼ÐµÂÑÐ¾Ð´ Ð² Ð¿ÑÐµÐ´Ð»Ð¾Ð¶ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾Ð¼ Ð²Ð¸Ð´Ðµ Ð²ÑÑÐ²Ð»ÑÐµÑ, Ð¿Ð¾-Ð²Ð¸Ð´Ð¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð¼Ñ, Ð·Ð°ÐºÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð¼ÐµÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÐ¸ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÑÐ¾ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð½Ð¾Ð²Ð¸Ð´Ð½Ð¾ÑÑÐµÐ¹ ÐºÐ°ÑÐºÐ°ÑÐ° Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ Ð¿Ð¾ÂÑÑÐ´Ñ Ð¿Ð¾ Ð²ÑÐ±ÑÐ°Ð½Ð½ÑÐ¼ ÑÐ¾Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÐµÐ½Ð¸ÑÐ¼ Ð¿Ð°ÑÐ°ÂÐ¼ÐµÑÑÐ¾Ð² ÐºÐ°Ðº Ð¾Ð±ÑÐµÐºÑÐ°, Ñ Ð°ÑÐ°ÐºÑÐµÑÐ¸Ð·ÑÑÑÐµÐ³Ð¾ ÑÑÐ°Ð´Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ð¸ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ ÑÑÐ½Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¾Ð¹ Ð¾Ð±ÑÂÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÐ¸, Ð° Ð¸Ð¼ÐµÐ½Ð½Ð¾ Ð·Ð°ÑÑÐ±Ð¸Ð½ÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð³Ð¾Ð½ÑÐ°ÑÐ¾Ð². ÐÐ¾ ÑÑÐ¾ Ð½Ðµ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ Ð·Ð°ÐºÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð¼ÐµÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÂÑÐ¸, Ð² ÑÐµÐ¼ Ñ Ð¾ÑÐ¾ÑÐ¾ ÑÐ±ÐµÐ¶Ð´Ð°ÐµÑ Ð¸ ÑÐ°ÑÐ¿ÑÐµÐ´ÐµÐ»ÐµÂÐ½Ð¸Ðµ ÑÑÐµÐ´Ð½ÐµÐ»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½ÑÐºÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð² Ð¿Ð¾Ð»ÑÑÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÑ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾Ð´Ð°Ñ . ÐÐ°Ð±Ð»ÑÐ´Ð°ÐµÑÑÑ ÑÐ°ÐºÐ¶Ðµ Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð¸Ð·Ð²Ð¾Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¾Ðµ ÑÑÑÐ°Ð½Ð¾Ð²Ð»ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ Ñ ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¾ÂÐ»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ°Ð¼Ð¾Ðº Ð´Ð»Ñ Ð³ÑÑÐ¿Ð¿ ÐºÐ»Ð°ÑÑÐµÑÐ¾Ð², ÑÐ¾Ð¿ÑÐ¾Ð²Ð¾Ð¶Ð´Ð°ÑÑÐ¸Ñ ÑÑ Ð¾Ð´Ð½Ð¸Ð¼Ð¸ Ð¸ ÑÐµÐ¼Ð¸ Ð¶Ðµ ÑÐ¸ÂÐ¿Ð°Ð¼Ð¸ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ». ÐÐ°Ð¿ÑÐ¸Ð¼ÐµÑ, Ð² Ð'Ð¾ÑÐ¾Ð½Ð¸Ð½Ð¾ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ð° B-ÐÐ¾ÑÑÐ¶ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ Ð¾ÑÐ¼ÐµÑÐ°ÑÑ ÑÐ°ÂÐ·Ñ 1, Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ Ðº Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ñ C1b, Ð° Ð² Ð§Ð°Ð¿ÂÐ»Ð¸Ð½Ðµ ÑÑÐ¸ Ð¶Ðµ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ»Ñ Ñ Ð¾ÑÑ Ð¸ ÑÐ°Ð·Ñ 1, Ð½Ð¾ ÐµÐµ Ð´Ð°ÑÐ¸ÑÑÑÑ ÑÐ¶Ðµ Ð»Ð°ÑÐµÐ½Ð¾Ð¼ C2. Ð Ð² ÑÐµÐ¼ Ñ ÑÐ¾ÂÐ½Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸ÑÐµÑÐºÐ¸Ðµ ÑÐ°Ð·Ð»Ð¸ÑÐ¸Ñ Ð¿Ð¾ÑÑÐ´Ñ ÑÑÐ¸Ñ ÑÐ°Ð·, Ð²ÑÐ´ÐµÐ»ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÑ Ð¿Ð¾ Ð¾Ð´Ð½Ð¾Ð¼Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð¿Ñ ÑÐ¸Ð±ÑÐ» Ð² Ð¾Ð´Ð½Ñ (Ð¿ÐµÑÐ²ÑÑ) ÑÐ°Ð·Ñ, Ð¾ÑÐ½Ð¾ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ Ð½Ð° ÑÐ°Ð·Ð½ÑÑ Ð¼Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð»ÑÐ½Ð¸ÐºÐ°Ñ Ðº ÑÐ°Ð·Ð½ÑÐ¼ Ð²ÑÐµÐ¼ÐµÐ½Ð½ÑÐ¼ Ð¿ÐµÑÐ¸Ð¾ÂÐ´Ð°Ð¼, Ð¾ÑÑÐ°ÐµÑÑÑ Ð½ÐµÑÑÐ½ÑÐ¼.
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S.P. Pachkova The Zarubinetsy Culture and the LaTÃ¨neized Cultures of Europe 3.6 The Chronology and Periodization of the Zarubinetsy Culture pp. 105-134Message 1 of 2 , Jan 23, 2012View SourceS.P. Pachkova
The Zarubinetsy Culture and the LaTÃ¨neized Cultures of Europe
3.6 The Chronology and Periodization of the Zarubinetsy Culture
translated to the best of Google translate's and my capability
The chronology and periodization of the LaTÃ¨neized cultures since the late 50s were based on absolute dates of the historical periods of the development of the Celtic civilization elaborated by the Czech scientist J. Filip, and of the relative chronology established by correlating materials of cemeteries in North and Central Europe, by the German researcher R. Hachmann [Filip 1956; Hachmann 1961]. All absolute dates were made 50-100 years younger in comparison to those proposed in the beginning in this century by P. Reinecke, as they were guided by the principle of dating "on the latest object", which led to a shift of the whole culture upwards [Shchukin, 1993, p. 75].
This is clearly evident in the works of many archaeologists, including those involved in the problems of the Zarubintsy culture [Kukharenko 1964; Machinsky 1963; 1966; Ambroz 1966 et al.] As a consequence, there appeared discrepancies in the datings of Zarubintsy burials on the basis of fibulae and settlements on the basis of stamps of ancient amphorae. Discrepancies arose also in the elaboration of local chronological schemes in other LaTÃ¨neized Central European cultures. There arose a need to find opportunities to overcome this situation.
Recent elaborations of absolute datings are based on the results of dendrochronological analysis of excavation of LatÃ¨ne and Celtic sites. The dates obtained permitted a correction of the chronology of a number of categories of finds from sites in Italy, the Eastern Adriatic and the area between the rivers Rhine and Main. In fact, the P. Reinecke's system was not only restored but greatly detailed and refined [Haffner, 1974, p. 59, 1979, p. 405; StÃ¶ckli 1979, p. 270; Polenz 1982, p. 27]. The first results of the reevaluation begun in Europe of J. Filip's chronological scale and R. Hachmann 's periodization were reflected in the work of K. GodÅowski [GodÅowski 1977].
In accordance with the revision of the chronology of the late pre-Roman period of the Central European territories, some adjustments were introduced into the history of the Zarubintsy culture of Polesie [Kasparova, 1984, pp. 108-118]. However, the most complete work on the synchronization of items of LatÃ¨ne and Roman style from archaeological sites in Eastern Europe was carried out by M.B. Shchukin and W. E. Eremenko [Shchukin 1989; Shchukin, 1993, pp. 75-84; Eremenko, Shchukin 1992, pp. 80-114].
The chronology of the Zarubintsy culture is, primarily, based on sufficiently narrowly dated stamps of shards of ancient amphorae found in the settlements of the Middle Dnieper. Important chronological reference points are also fibulae, which in great quantity are produced from burial grounds and to a lesser extent from the settlements of the Zarubintsy culture. Other finds (antique tableware, shards of amphorae without stamps, belt fittings, various kinds of jewelry, etc.) are dated, as a rule, more widely and play, basically, an auxiliary chronological role or serve for wider datings.
The chronological boundaries of the Zarubintsy culture were determined differently by researchers and, in general, fall within the period from the end of the 3rd cent. BCE. to the end of the 2nd cent BCE. However, the analysis of the actual dating objects in sites of the Zarubintsy culture narrows somewhat this broad framework. The dating objects from sites of the Zarubintsy culture with respect to stylistic features relate to the Middle and Late LaTÃ¨ne and Early Roman time.
According to E.V. Maksimov, on 18 points of the Middle Dnieper area, shards of late Hellenistic amphorae were recorded, and on 11, Early Roman ones [1972, p. 112]. From the late Hellenistic ones, most often are encountered shards of amphorae from the island of Kos and to a lesser extent from other centers - Rhodes, Thasos, Paros and Sinope. Most intensively Kos amphorae entered the Northern Black Sea region in the second half of 3rd and 2nd cent. BCE. and somewhat less in the first half of the first century BCE. [Zeest 1960, p. 104]. Sinope amphorae arrived throughout the whole Hellenistic period until the beginning of the 1st cent. CE. Imports from the island of Thasos stopped at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BCE [Zeest 1960, p. 21]. Rhodes' production, in accordance with an analysis of the political situation in the Greek city-states in the 3-2 cent. BCE could arrive primarily in the beginning of the 2nd century BCE [Eremenko 1992, pp. 22-23]. To the turn of the 3rd-2nd centuries BCE belonged the peak in arrival of Rhodes wine to the Northern Black Sea Coast also N.B. Zeest [1960, fig. 2].
In Early Roman time at the end of 1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE occurs a lively flow of amphorae, the place of production of which was the Southern Black Sea coast [Zeest 1960, p. 108]. According to E.V. Maksimov, of the 22 points, where antique import is noted, on the seven was encountered both Late Hellenistic and Early Roman material - on the mountain Kiselevka, in Hodorov, Zarubintsy (Malaya Gorka), at Babina Gora (Buchak), Pilipenkovaya Gora, in Zhabotina, in Subotov. Whereas in Zhabotina and Zarubintsy Late Hellenistic material was greater than Early Roman, in Pilipenkovaya Gora it was about equal, but in Subotov there was more Early Roman than the Late Hellenistic [1972, p. 95].
Thus, by the amphora material Zarubintsy settlements of the Middle Dnieper are dated from the second half of the 3rd cent. BCE. to the 1st cent. CE inclusively. But finds of stamps on shards of amphorae make this wide framework more concrete. On Pilipenkovaya Gora was found in wine-cellar 32 dwelling 18 a fragment of a rim and double-barreled handle of a Kos amphorae with a stamp consisting of a one-line inscription Î`Î¡ÎÎÎÎÎ"ÎÎ£. As identified by B.N. Grakov, this stamp dates to 230-220 BCE. On Pilipenkovaya Gora shards of Kos amphorae were found together with shards of Thasos amphorae in dwellings 2, 4, 6, 15, 18, 22, 34. Therefore, the researcher of the site believes that these objects date from a time interval that corresponds to the co-occurrence of imports from Kos and Thasos, ie. the period from the last decades of the 3rd cent. BCE to the beginning of the 2nd cent. BCE [Maksimov, 1972, p. 114].
The latest arrivals of ancient amphorae on Zarubintsy sites mark the 1st century. Thus, in the village Monastyrek shards of amphorae from brown clay represent fragments of all parts of the vessels [Maksimov, Petrashenko 1988, fig. 59, 16, 17, 20]. As noted, the time of existence of these amphorae is defined by two centuries (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE). The late temporal limit of the occurrence of these amphorae on the Monastyrek site can be supported by the findings of a red-clay fragments of bowls on a circular foot, which dates from the 1st cent. BCE, and a shard of the profiled horizontal grooved rim of a red-lacquer cup, maybe even 2nd cent. CE [Maksimov, Petrashenko 1988, p. 72]. Fragments of terra sigillata vessels are also among the Zarubintsy materials in Hodorov [Maksimov 1991, p. 7].
The operative period of fibulae found on Zarubintsy sites may be based on absolute and relative chronology of similar types in Central Europe. The dating of the Central European fibulae are supported on the results of dendrochronological analysis and on correlation with various categories of other dating objects.
The earliest of the fibulae found in closed complexes is the splitting up of the Middle LatÃ¨ne scheme. The variations with eight-shaped loops on the back, rather than on the leg represent the earliest ones - type P2. Their roots stretch out on the territory of the Celtic-Illyrian culture of the Balkan-Danube region [WoÅ¼niak 1974, s. 39-40]. Fibulae with beads on the back (Type P1) are associated with the northern regions of the Jastorf culture [BabeÅ 1985, p. 107]. The emergence of these types of fibulae belongs to phase 1 of LaTÃ¨ne C, which, according to K. GodÅowski begins about the middle of 3rd cent. BCE [GodÅowski 1977, pp. 42-47].
However, in the first decades of this period still continue to exist objects of Early LaTÃ¨ne style, therefore the researchers split off the transitional period from stage LaTÃ¨ne B2 to LaTÃ¨ne C1 as LaTÃ¨ne B2/C1, which ends at the end of the 3rd cent. BCE [Bujna 1982, fig. 3.45; 5.47]. In any case, the remains of charred wood from burial 96 in the cemetery Wederat on the Rhine with fibulae of stage LaTÃ¨ne C1b by dendrochronological analysis indicated the possible date of felling of the tree of 208 BCE [Haffner 1979, pp. 405-409]. The change of style of things from LaTÃ¨ne B2 to LaTÃ¨ne C1 is connected to the migrations of the Celts, forced out of Italy in 250-235 BCE [Polenz 1982, pp. 120-124]. Burial complex 127 on the Gubin cemetery Luboszyce on the Middle Oder (Poland), in which was found a fibula with balls with a neck-ring type O/1, according to T. Voigt, which dates from the end of 3rd dent. BCE [DomaÅski 1975, s. 19] also confirms the beginning of the dissected fibulae at this time. Thus, the dissected fibulae P2 and P1 could theoretically get to the sites of the Zarubintsy culture already in LaTÃ¨ne C1, ie, in the last decades of the 3rd cent. BCE or at the very beginning of the 2nd cent. BCE (burial 26 of the Pirogov cemetery, burial 108 of the Velemichi-1 cemetery, burial 4 of the Voronino cemetery). Dissected fibulae existed throughout LaTÃ¨ne C. Thus, fibulae P3 (with small bumps on the stem) from burial 129 of the cemetery in Pirogov K.V. Kasparova compares with the Mechvil type and attributes it to LaTÃ¨ne C2 [1984, p. 115], although in Celtic cemeteries of Moravia, similar fibulae also date to LaTÃ¨ne C1 [CiÅ¾maÅ 1975, s. 417-437].
T. DÄ browska, analyzing materials of the Przeworsk culture, came to the conclusion that the long fibula of type A-and B-Kostrzewski decorated with small bulges (in our typology type P3) is stylistically related to LaTÃ¨ne C1 and signal the beginning of the formation of Przeworsk culture [DÄ browska 1988 p. 302].
The non-ornamened wire fibulae in LaTÃ¨ne cultures appeared at the same time as the disjointed ones in LaTÃ¨ne C1 and various modifications of them existed for the duration of LaTÃ¨ne C and D. As the earliest ones of these were considered the long wire fibula with gently curved back and leg, attached about the middle of the back is type A-Kostrzewski rectangularly bent curved back and leg, attached to the back close to the head is type B-Kostrzewski. In the Zarubintsy culture there are no fibulae of type A, but there are isolated imitations of fibulae of this type - this is Ak from burial of the 128 Pirogov cemetery and type Ba from burial 70 from the cemetery Velemichi-1. Long fibulae of type A-Kostrzewski, especially with small bulges, quickly disappear from use in the cultures of Central Europe and are replaced by type B-, and then type C-Kostrzewski (with a sharp kink at the back of the head), the last ones point to phase LaTÃ¨ne C2.
The boundary between LaTÃ¨ne C1 and C2, according to H. Polenz, occurs in 185-170 BCE which was established for them by correlating fibulae and coins in the cemeteries between the rivers Rhine and Main [Polenz 1982, p. 123]. To similar conclusions arrived B. StÃ¶ckli the analysis of amphoras from Manching [StÃ¶ckli 1979, p. 185]. In LaTÃ¨neized cultures fibulae of type B are encountered with different types of fibulae, characteristic for different time periods. Thus, in the Jastorf cemetery Kammer (Brandenburg) in burials 1 and 12, in the PoieneÅti cemetery in burial 48 and in the Gubin group cemetery Luboszyce on the Middle Oder the are accompanied by dissected fibulae with balls (type P1) [Hachmann 1961, p. 99, fig. 31; Vulpe 1953, p. 327; DomaÅski 1975, s. 19]. In burials 105 and 147 they are recorded together with fibulae of fig. 19 Kostrzewski (M. BabeÅ' type III.1), which also mark LaTÃ¨ne C [Vulpe 1953, p. 349, 362]. In burial 4 of the cemetery Kammer, in burial 56 of the Przeworsk cemetery Zaguzhin fibulae of type B have been found together with fibulae of types H- and G / H-Kostrzewski, which date back to LaTÃ¨ne D1 [Hachmann 1961, p. 99, fig. 31; DÄ browska 1988, s. 18].
Thus, the functioning of fibulae of Type B in the LaTÃ¨neized cultures of Europe embraces a wide enough chronological range - LaTÃ¨ne C and D1, and possibly up to the age of Augustus, as considered I. Deshelett, that is, all of LaTÃ¨ne D. In the cemetery Voronin a type B fibula was found with a dissected fibula with eight-shaped loops on the back (P2) in burial 25, in Pirogov together with a fibula ÐÐ¢-II in burial 150, in Otverzhichi in burial 31, in Velemichi-1 in burial 60, and in Chaplin in burial 117 together with fibulae ÐÐ¢-III; in the same burial 70 of the cemetery Velemichi-1 together with Late LatÃ¨ne fibulae of type N1Ð². Thus, in the Zarubintsy culture fibulae of type B co-exist with the materials of Middle and Late LaTÃ¨ne.
As the transition from Middle to Late LaTÃ¨ne researchers unanimously determined approximately one and the same chronological interval - 120/116 or 120/105 BCE.
Dendrochronological research on logs of the Tille Bridge (Switzerland), where all the accompanying finds belong to LaTÃ¨ne D, showed that these logs could have been cut somewhere between 120-116 BCE [Hachmann 1961, p. 258; Polenz 1971, p; Haffner 1979, pp. 405-409].
Thus, in 120-116 BCE started the Late LaTÃ¨ne period - LaTÃ¨ne D. The main historical events of that time, influencing the change in the style of jewelry and other categories of objects, were the wars of Caesar in Gaul, the defeat of the Boii and Teurisci by Burebista, the movements of several Germanic tribes on to Celtic lands, the migrations of the Helvetii and Sueui, the occupation by Rome of Noricum and Raetia. The chronology of this time period is based mainly on material of Celtic oppida.
Researchers divide LaTÃ¨ne D into two phases. Phase D1 is diagnosed by Nauheim fibulae. There are many of them in the materials of the oppidum Manching. It was destroyed, as now believed, in 60-58 BCE or as a result of the campaigns of Burebista, or of some Germanic tribes, or perhaps as a result of inner-Celtic conflicts [GodÅowski 1977, pp. 61 - 63], and not as a result of the occupation by Rome of Raetia and Noricum, as J. Werner previously believed [Werner 1979, p. 113]. At oppida destroyed later, in 15-10 BCE we no longer encounter Nauheim fibulae, but there are things of Early Roman style [GodÅowski 1977, p. 60-62].
The period from 60-50 BCE to 15-10 BCE (from the defeat of Manching to the occupation Raetia and Noricum) is assigned by researchers to phase LaTÃ¨ne D2. At this time disappears the LaTÃ¨ne culture in Moravia, in the Czech lands cremation spreads, similar to those that have been recorded on the Elbe, in the LaTÃ¨ne sites of Slovakia appear Dacian ceramics. In Pannonia for some time still continued to function a few oppida. From Roman provinces on the Danube began to spread things of Early Roman style, but the transition to Early Roman time stretched for a hundred years. In the Przeworsk culture Roman times begins with the appearance of fibulae Almgren 68 in 40-70 CE. [Liana 1970, pp. 429 - 491; DÄ browska 1976, pp. 153-165]. It is true that in a later paper by T. DÄ browska limits it to the end of the first or the beginning of the second decade of the 1st cent. CE [DÄ browska 1988, s. 305]. According to M. B. Shchukin, Roman times take pan-European significance only at stage B2, the beginning of which is synchronized with the beginning of the Flavian age (70-90 CE). [1993, p. 79].
Indicators of LaTÃ¨ne D1, besides Nauheim fibulae are various modifications of the wire Middle LaTÃ¨ne fibulae of type D, E, G, H and Late LaTÃ¨ne of type K, F, J-Kostrzewski. In the Zarubintsy culture fibulae of such a type, as also fibulae of type C, did not become widespread, which indicates a significant weakening of its ties with Central Europe at the end of LaTÃ¨ne C2 and D1. We do encounter certain derivatives of type D/E in burial 109 of the Pirogov cemetery and some similar to types G and H in burials 7 and 246 in Chaplin, some similar to the type D/A arched in the cemetary Velemichi-1 and D/A in burial 80 in the cemetery Velemichi-2, of type D/B1 arched in burial 124 and of type B/C in burial 193 of the Pirogov cemetery. Besides that, there are fibulae, which to some extent are collated with the fibulae of type Nauheim - they are Late LatÃ¨ne fibulae of type M3a (burial 78 in Velemichi-2, burial 5 in Vishenki, burial 20 in Semuradtsy), type M3Ð± (burial 1 in Otverzhichi, burial 61 in Pirogov, burial 3 in Vishenki) and type N3Ð± (burial 21 in Semuradtsah, burial 22 on Devich Gora).
LaTÃ¨ne D2 is determined by the types of fibulae M-and N-Kostrzewski. In Zarubintsy materials we encounter fibulae as well analogous to these - the types N1Ð², N2Ð², as also some similar to them - this is the non-arched fibulae of the types M1a, N1a, N2a, and the weakly arched types M1Ð±, N1Ð±, which indicates a revival of ties at this time between the Zarubintsy culture, on the one hand, and the Przeworsk and Oksywie cultures, on the other side.
Yu. Kostrzewski attributed fibula types M, N, O, to Late LatÃ¨ne and even to Early Roman time [Kostrzewski, 1919, p. 37, 39, 40]. Modern researchers attribute to the indicators of LaTÃ¨ne D2 the strongly arched fibulae M1Ð² and N1Ð² and the non-arched and slightly arched ones (M1Ð°, M1Ð±, N1Ð°, N1Ð±) they consider possible to put in later positions - in the period of the experience of Late LaTÃ¨ne traditions, that is, in the Early Roman period A1-B1a [Shchukin 1989, part. 2, ill 19]. Type O-Kostrzewski or "Boii" fibulae come from burial 47 (2 ex.) of the cemetery Velemichi-1, burial 81 (2 ex.) of the cemetery Velemichi-2, and also 1 ex. from Grishchentsa, Kiev obl. They are dated to the end of the 1st cent. BCE. and the beginning of the 1st cent. CE [Ambroz, 1966, p. 25], not later than 40-50 CE. [Kasparov, 1981. 16].
Fibulae of the Late LatÃ¨ne scheme are also known in the materials of settlements: in Tatsenki - M3Ð± and N1Ð±, in Trubezh in the site Volchkov - N1Ð², in Obolon - N1Ð° [Shovkoplyas 1988, p. 237]. In the settlement Korzhi in Trubezh - a fibula of Late LatÃ¨ne scheme of "Pochep" type [Savchuk, 1969, fig. 1, 22]. An iron fibula of Late LatÃ¨ne schemes with framed receiver was found by V. Geze in 1901 in the settlement Sahnovka (Devitsa Gora) [Maksimov, 1972, p. 53].
Thus, the fibulae mark in Zarubintsy materials all phases of the LaTÃ¨ne period C and D. However, the foundation of the fibula complex of the Zarubintsy culture constitue fibulae of the Middle LatÃ¨ne scheme with a triangular ending of the leg, which are the ethnographic sign of the Zarubintsy population. In the scientific literature was expressed the opinion that the appearance of early examples of these fibulae in Zarubintsy cemeteries mark the onset of the formation of the Zarubintsy culture [Kasparova, 1981]. But the excessively increased dating of these fibulae at the time led several researchers to express a proposal of the existence of a pre-fibula phase in the Zarubintsy culture [Maksimov 1972; Pobol 1971-1974]. This opinion was subjected to criticism [Kasparova, Machinsky, Shchukin 1976, pp. 241 - 253].
In recent years, the idea of a pre-fibula stage in the Zarubintsy cultur comes back in a slightly modified form - the fibula-less period is about the absence in the Zarubintsy culture of not all fibulae in general, but only of fibulae of Zarubintsy type. As reason serves the discrepancy between the definition of the beginning the Zarubintsy culture by ancient stamps (at the end of the 3rd cent. BCE or at least at the turn of the 3rd/2nd centuries - early 2nd century. BCE.) and by the time of appearance in Zarubintsy culture of fibulae of Zarubintsy type, by the proposal by KV Kasparova only after the Balkan campaigns of the Bastarnae in 178-169 BCE .
A thought has been expressed of a pre-Balkan phase of the Zarubintsy culture, in which there were not yet fibulae genetically related to the Celtic-Illyrian world [Abezgauz, Eremenko, Zhuravlev, Kargopoltsev 1992, pp. 34 - 55, Eremenko, Zhuravlev 1991, pp. 55-80]. In this case, the earliest in Zarubintsy culture could be dissected fibula with beads, which are known in Zarubintsy materials in a single case, and fibulae of type B-Kostrzewski that existed in all periods Zarubintsy culture, but not on LaTÃ¨ne D1 inclusively, as the authors of the hypothesis in question write. That is, for the first phase - the time of formation of the Zarubintsy culture - there are practically no chronological reference points.
There appears a great artificiality and strained-ness in the constructs of the hypotheses, both of the routes and time of the spread of prototypes of fibulae of Zarubintsy type into the Zarubintsy environment, as well as the justification of the chronological phase of the culture preceding the dissemination of fibulae of Zarubintsy type. The proposed hypotheses can not explain: firstly, why the Zarubintsy Bastarnae adopted the form of the spear-shaped fibulae, and the Bastarnae of the PoeneÅti-Lukashevka culture didn't, and secondly - why this borrowing happened so late, seeing as Bastarnae in the Danube area are known since the 30s of the 3rd cent. BCE. At the end of this century, at least, to 213 BCE the Sciri together with the Galatians were under Olbia. And it was at that time they could take in all the new and unusual.
The Middle Dnieper fibulae of Zarubintsy type on a greater number of signs are closer to the spear-shaped ones than the Polesie ones do [Pachkova 1988, p. 17]. It is fully reasonable to assume that members of the population of the emerging Zarubintsy culture themselves adopted the form of fibulae with a triangular catch-plate on the leg, when they participated in Bastarnae campaigns in the Balkans. Together with them from the Balkan campaigns to the Dnieper could come representatives of Celtic-Illyrian tribes, and bring the fibulae into the territory of the Zarubintsy culture. As proof of this can serve a fibula, found in an area s. Borodyanka, Kiev obl. (fig. 26, 1). It is characterized by the fact that its catch-plate is a crushed back, and on the leg there is no catch-plate. But such a modification of fibulae with a triangular catch-plate did not take root among the population of the Zarubintsy culture.
There are discrepancies between the researchers also in the dating of concrete variations of fibulae of Zarubintsy type, and in determining the pace of their development and replacement [Pachkova 1988, p. 12, fig. 1]. An analysis of the co-occurrence of variations of fibulae of Zarubintsy type with fibulae of other types establishes the correctness of the opinion that the fibulae of Zarubintsy type outlive all types of fibulae of Middle LatÃ¨ne and Late LatÃ¨ne schemes, which were widespread in the Zarubintsy culture. The latest variants, as known from the materials from the cemeteries of Rakhny and Hryniewicze Wielkie accompany oculate fibulae of the Early Roman period B2. Thus, marking the process of formation of the Zarubintsy culture and its finale, the fibulae of Zarubintsy type, for which the Celtic-Illyrian spear-shaped fibulae served as prototype, are indeed the most expressive ethnographic feature of the Zarubintsy culture throughout its functioning.
The transition from the LaTÃ¨ne style to the Early Roman one in the Zarubintsy culture is represented by fibulae of type Ambroz gr. 12 var. 7 - spring with a smooth body and a button on the end of plate receiver. They date to the 1st cent. CE, mainly its first half [Shchukin 1989, part. 2, ill. 20, 17]. One of them comes from burial 3 in the Subotov cemetery.
To this period belong the arched tied fibulae of type Ambroz gr. 15 series 1 var. 1 (pseudo-LaTÃ¨ne) [Ambroz, 1966, p. 48]. They are found in burials 162 in the Pirogov cemetery, 2 at Devich Gora, 56 and 58 in Chaplin, moreover in burial 56 paired with a fibula of type N1a.
The arched tied fibulae of type Ambroz gr. 16 subgroup 1 of the Upper Dnieper series is dated to the 1st cent. CE [Ambroz 1966, p. 57]. One copy of this fibula was found in burial 25 in Chaplin together with a fibula type N1a. In the only copy on Zarubintsy territory found bi-partite tong-shaped fibula in burial 152 in Chaplin. Its body is close to Late LatÃ¨ne fibula, but instead the spring head ends with two hooks, as if with tongs. This fibula is rare in Eastern Europe, it is related to the type of Provincial Roman ones. A.K. Ambroz included it in a group of fibulae of diverse forms and diverse times, united by the structure of the hinge [1966, p. 28]. The highest concentration of tong fibulae is observed in the eastern Alps, northern Italy and Rome's Danubian provinces in the 2nd - 3rd cent. CE. Fibulae similar to those of Chaplin some researchers attribute to the 1st cent. CE [Kuha-Renko, 1964, p. 53; Pobol 1971. 119] but others to the second half of the 1st cent. BCE - Early Roman time A1 [Shchukin 1989, part. 2 .- ill. 19].
The very latest fibulae are oculate. At the settlement Lyutezh in the upper layer of one of the pits was found an instance of type Almgren 61 (type IV of Jamka's series). These mark the beginning, middle, and even the third quarter of the 2nd cent. [Jamka 1964, p. 75, fig. 55]. However, later in Early Roman B2a times oculate fibulae is no longer found [WolÄ giewicz 1974, s. 129 - 152]. The same kind of fibulae has been found in the cultural layer of the settlement Tatsenki [Maksimov, 1969, p. 45, fig. 6, 12] and in the destroyed cemetery in Zarubintsy [Petrov 1969, p.. 45].
In the Middle Dnieper region of the Zarubintsy culture have been discocered fibulae temporally belonging to the Zarubintsy culture, but the circumstances of their findings are not always known. They were collected by L.A. Tsyndrovskaya [1988, pp. 85-94, fig. 1, table 1]. They are Late LatÃ¨ne fibulae close to types M, N, O-Kostrzewski (end of 1st cent. BCE. - beginning of 1st cent. CE) from Grischentsy, Zarubintsy, Tatsenki, Vovchki, a fibula of Late LatÃ¨ne scheme of "Pochep" type (1st cent.) from Korzhi, sharply profiled ones of type Almgren 84 (second half of 2nd cent.) from Rudyakov and Pasechnaya, oculate fibulae from Kononchi and the Kiev region. A large part of them could be connected with the sites of the Zarubintsy culture.
Having examined the fibula complex of the Zarubintsy culture of those regions where the processes of its formation proceeded, we can conclude that the later fibulae from burials belong to the Early Roman period B1a, B1b, which, according to M.B. Shchukin, in this area corresponds to the transition period from LaTÃ¨ne to Roman. In the materials of the same settlements appear separate instances of fibulae of the next chronological stage and style - Early Roman B2, signaling the finale of the Zarubintsy culture also on the Middle Dnieper. There are also some other objects, marking the finale of the Zarubintsy culture - these are two buckles and spurs of group 1, according to K. GodÅowski [PZP 1981, p. 174], found in the settlement in Novye Bezradichi in the cultural layer and objects together with Zarubintsy ceramics. They belong to the middle or second half of 2nd cent. [Terpilovsky, Abashina 1992, p. 79]. Spurs of Roman types were also found in Obolon and Monastyrka. Thus, also in the Early Roman period B2 separate Zarubintsy sites continued to function.
Questions of the periodization of the Zarubintsy cultures characterizing the phases and the rate of development of its individual regions are repeatedly raised in the scientific literature. There are variants of the construction of periodization of on materials of settlements, which reflect changes in material culture deriving from large chronological temporal caesuras, often associated with external events (the threat of external attack, the change in external trade links, etc.). On the settlements there are almost no closed systems, few whole vessels, and a dearth of dating objects. It is difficult to grasp the nuances in the changes in the individual categories of objects, and therefore are recorded the most global transformations - the construction of additional fortifications, change in the character of imported products, changes in topography of populated points etc. It is a different matter with cemeteries: closed complexes, a large number of intact vessels, fibulae, different types of jewelry, weapons, work tools, a variety of funeral rites. The correlation of the co-occurrence of the various artifacts in one burial permits one to observe the slightest changes in the material complex, which, in the final analysis, also correspond to the rhythms of the development of the culture itself.
As one of the first Yu.V. Kukharenko elaborated a periodization of the Zarubintsy culture. Having identified two stages - the 1st cent. BCE and the 1st cent. CE, he noted that in the material culture big changes in the later period compared to the earlier one are not observed [Kukharenko 1964, p. 54].
L.D. Pobol identified three stages in the development of the Zarubintsy culture. The first stage - the pre-fibula one - was genetically linked to the Milogradskiy culture and dates from the middle of 3rd to the middle of the 2nd cent. BCE. The second stage is marked by fibulae of Middle LatÃ¨ne scheme from the middle of 2nd to the middle of the 1st cent. BCE. The third is determined by Late LatÃ¨ne fibulae from the mid-1st cent. BCE to the beginning of the 2nd cent. CE. [Pobol' 1971, 1974]. However, such a clear separation of the periods by fibulae does not correspond to the stages of development even in the Celts themselves, moreover, it can not correspond to the rhythms of development of the outskirts from LaTÃ¨neized cultures. All this has led to criticism in the scientific literature [Kasparova, Machinsky, Shchukin 1976. pp. 241 - 253].
E. V. Maksimov divided the time of functioning of the Zarubintsy culture into the first (early) period - from the last third of the 3rd cent. BCE to the end of the 1st cent. BCE (or to the middle of the 1st cent. BCE), the second (later or middle) period from the end of 1st cent. BCE (or from the middle of 1st cent. BCE) to the end of the1st cent. CE (or to the middle of the 1st cent CE), the third (final or late) from the turn of the 1 / 2 cent. BCE (or from the middle of the 1st cent. BCE) to the end of the 2nd cent. CE [Maksimov 1972, 1982, 1994, p. 51]. E.V. Maksimov's conclusions are, in the main, based on material from settlements of the Zarubintsy culture.
A detailed analysis of the funerary complexes can complement and refine this periodization, which practically does not single out the period of emergence and formation of the culture. To the present time, several periodizations of the Zarubintsy culture as a whole or its regions have been worked out, done on materials of cemeteries.
K.V. Kasparova, exploring the materials of the Zarubintsy culture of the Pripyat Polesie, came to the conclusion that it was impossible to use the signs of the burial rites to solve the questions of chronology and periodization. However, as the most sensitive bits of chronological indicators stand out ceramics, as the most bulky material, and fibulae are the most volatile jewelry with respect to time. The Polesie cemetery she divided into four phases and allocated transitional sub-phases. All the cemeteries, in her opinion, arose approximately in one period and the basic phases of their development coincided, although Otverzhichi and Voronin ceased to function a little earlier than the cemeteries in Velemichi, but also in the fourth chronological phase [Kasparova, 1981, pp. 15-16]. Weaknesses of the proposed periodization were laid, in my opinion, in the visual method of typology of ceramics, in which are not defined clear criteria for selection of its classification levels. This leads to subjectivity in the selection of types and the impossiblity not only of verifying the correctness of the author's conclusions, but also of other researchers using the proposed typology.
For periodization of the materials of the Upper Dnieper version of culture A.M. Oblomsky used the method of correlating chronological indicators with pottery. The positive side of his work is that the typology of the pottery and fibulae was performed using a mathematical algorithm of successive division into classes. However, this typology suffers from some drawbacks [Pachkova 1989, p. 34-37; Eremenko, Zhuravlev 1992, p. 55-56; Abezgauz, Eremenko, Zhuravlev, Kargopoltsev 1992, p. 34-41]. Also the typology of fibulae of Zarubintsy type proposed by AM Oblomskiy [Pachkova 1988, p. 11] drew criticism, as the fibulae play an important role in providing chronological periods.
Yet another variant of the methodology of chronologically dividing the Zarubintsy culture based on materials of the cemetery complexes has been published. It is based on the use of a cluster typology of ceramics and correlation with the groups of vesels with chronological reference points separately for male and female burials [Abergauz, Eremenko, Zhuravlev, Kargopoltsev 1992, p. 34-45]. This method was used by V.E. Eremenko in his work 'The 'Celtic Veil' and the Zarubintsy Culture" . But the separation of burials into male and female one turns out to be to a significant degree imaginary, as based on a complex of objects, but not on the results of anthropological analysis. In the proposed typology of vessels have not been taken into account the angular parameters of the proportion (the degree of deviation of the neck and shoulder convexity) that are the chronological signs. Finally, ignoring the proportions connected with the parameters of the neck (its diameter and height), can lead to enrollment into one cluster-type of vessels of class A (with necks) and class B (without necks). All this does not permit to recognize the cluster method in its proposed form as flawless, and, most importantly, as suitable for the treatment of questions of periodization.
The authors of the method argue that the cluster method "identifies the basic patterns" of the material. Perhaps, in some degree this is true. But the cluster method in its proposed form, identifies, apparently, the patterns of construction of varieties of the shell of Zarubintsy vessels on the chosen correlation of parameters as an object, characterizing the tradition of the Zarubintsy ethnic community, namely of Zarubintsy potters. But these are not chronological patterns in which even the distribution of Middle LatÃ¨ne fibulae in the given chronological periods is very convincing. There appears also an arbitrary establishment of the chronological frame for the groups of clusters, accompanied by the same types of fibulae. For example, in Voronino the fibula type B-Kostrzewski mark phase 1, belonging to LaTÃ¨ne C1b, and in Chaplin the same fibulae although also phase 1, dates already LaTÃ¨ne C2. And in what the chronological differences of pottery of these phases, identified by a single type of fibulae into one (the first) phase, are, belonging to different cemeteries for different time periods, remains unclear.
In addition, cluster analysis is conducted separately for each site, and not on materials of the whole culture, or at least region. "As the tempo of existence of similar borrowed things, by which usually is dated the burials of LaTÃ¨neized cultures, is different in male and female burials, the synchronization of the periodization can be done on those objects of which the occurrence tempo in male and female burials is about similar - for example, on the ceramic" [Bajan, Eremenko 1992, p. 16]. With this we can completely agree. I'll add that if in the ceramic there will be provided chronological evidence, then in the periodization there is no need for separate treatment of male and female burials.
In this paper we propose yet another variant of periodization of the Zarubintsy culture, in the elaboration of which was based on the materials of the cemeteries. Its differerence from others lies in the fact that the correlation of fibulae and other dating objects is carried out with the ceramic, divided not into types or cluster-types, but on the signs of the schemes 1-2. This made it possible to detect vessels with such a set of signs that occur predominantly in the earlier types of fibulae, and vessels with a set of signs that were accompanied in the burials by later fibulae. These signs usually come in different typological categories (section-type-variant-variety).
Analyzed were 215 burials in which the fibula were found together with intact or fully restorable profiles of vessels. They cover different regions of cemeteries of the Zarubintsy culture. From the cemetery Voronino were used 13 burial complexes, from Velemichi-1 - 36, Velemichi-2 - 38, Otverzhichi - 18, Pirogov - 29 Vishenki - 9, Chaplin - 57, Devich Gora - 6 Vitachev - 2 Dedov Shpil' - 2, Semuradtsy - 4, Remel' - 1, Goroshkov - 1. As the latest systems were used materials from cemeteries Rakhny and Hryniewicze Wielky. Such a number of complexes is sufficient for statistical analysis. The degree of probability of each event of a joint find of a vessel with a fibula is 0.68 [Rychkov, 1982, Table. 1]. These burials contain virtually all types of vessels with fibulae of different types. Class A vessels, having neck, shoulders and lower part, were detected with all types of fibulae. The most frequently recorded together with fibulae were pots, bowls and cups, which also constitute the main body of pottery. Goblets and chalices of class A in isolated cases occur with the earliest types of fibulae, namely with B-Kostrzewski. And conversely, a significant portion of them were found in burials with fibulae of Late LatÃ¨ne scheme. Class A pitchers more often occur with the earliest types of fibulae. A Scythoid bowl of class Ð` from burial 26 of the Pirogov cemetery was found with dissected fibula P2 (with eight-shaped loops on the back). A ribbed bowl of Class Ð` in burial 25 of the Chaplin cemetery was together with a arched fibula and a Late LatÃ¨ne weakly profiled type N1a, a bowl of Class Ð` in burial 37 of the same cemetery was together with Late LatÃ¨ne weakly profiled type N26. A bowl of Class B on a ring-shaped tray in the Subotov cemetery was accompanied by a spring fibula with a button at the end of the receiver. Also in the Rakhny cemetery, in burial 4, a Class A bowl was found with an oculate fibula type Almgren 58/59 and with a spring fibula with a weakly outlined button at the end of the receiver.
That is, with the functioning of the cemetery is traced a definite change of appearance of the pottery in the burials of the Zarubintsy culture. Frequency analysis of the co-occurrence of Class A pottery with fibulae in one and the same burials shows that what changes is not all the selected signs in the pottery, but only some of them. Among the measurements are the signs that determine the degree of profiling of the necks in bowl-like vessels (the degree of its deviation) and signs determining the degree of profiling (convexity) of the shoulders in pottery of both bowl-like and pot-like proportions. Among the descriptive (morphological) signs are the signs of a combination of forms of outer lines of neck, shoulder and lower part of the vessel, the character of the transition of the neck to the shoulders and from the shoulders to the lower part of the body, that is, the outer lines of the silhouette of the vessel. Among the signs of ornamentation is the presence of a polished groove and ledge on the shoulders or below the neck. A certain set of signs of the shown combinations is encountered in vessels, accompanied in burials by these or the other fibulae, that is, these signs are chronological for Zarubinetsy ceramics.
Fibulae of the types P1, B-Kostrzewski, ÐÐ¢-II and ÐÐ¢-III are found in some burials together with pots, pitchers and goblets, which usually have very strongly and strongly profiled shoulders (Ð"9, Ð"8, Ð"7), a straight neck line, a bulging line of the shoulder and lower part of the body, a sharp transition of the neck to the body and a polished groove and ring-shaped ledge under the neck or on the shoulders, which creates their duality. These signs we conventionally call early.
With fibulae of different types of M and N-Kostrzewski and fibulae of Early Roman style has been found ceramics in which dominate medium and weakly profiled shoulders, an arched neck, blending smoothly into the body of the vessel, straight lines and even concave lines of the shoulders and the lower part of the body, which is sometimes ribbed or close to ribbed. These signs we conventionally call later.
A similar pattern is observed with mugs. With a set of early signs have been dicovered mugs, which are accompanied by fibulae of type B-Kostrzewski and ÐÐ¢-III, and those that are found together with fibulae of types M and N, are characterized by late signs. Chalices are chiefly encountered with late fibulae, and they themselves are marked basically with late signs. Among them specimens with a set of early signs are rarely encountered. In addition, it should be noted that for the mugs, and for chalices the degree of profiling of the shoulders (indicator Ð"6) belongs to the category of early signs.
Of bowl-like vessels with fibulae are found mostly bowls. With fibulae types of P3, B, ÐÐ¢-I, ÐÐ¢-II, ÐÐ¢-III are mainly bowls with a set of early signs. In bowls, to the number of early ones belong signs, corresponding to classes with neck bent from strongly to very strongly outwards - an indicator of form Ð`6, Ð`7, Ð`8, Ð`9, and also descriptive signs of the bottom - close to round, which are characteristic to a large degree for the Upper Dnieper area. Early are signs such as: the bowls have a groove, drawn on the neck or under it with a finger and creating like a ribbing on the shoulders - this is also a feature of the Upper Dnieper pottery. As well as on the mugs, the indicator sign Ð"6 for bowls is early.
With fibulae of Late LatÃ¨ne scheme are encountered basically bowls with a set of late signs that have necks bent slightly outwards or even placed vertically, is encountered ribbed torso, the neck line concave, the line of the shoulders and the lower part straight or concave. Something similar is observed also in cups, and in soup tureens.
The mentioned uniquenesses of co-occurrence of pottery with fibulae in closed complexes made it possible to identify the groupings of vessels by the number of early and late signs, to which correspond more or less stable combinations of certain types of fibulae.
To the first belong vessels with four, five or six early signs and no more than one or two late signs. In addition to pots and bowls in this group are pitchers, and also a small number of goblets, mugs, cups, chalices. Certain types of pottery in this grouping differ from each other in the quantitative and qualitative composition of the early signs. If among the pots more than half have very strongly and strongly profiled shoulders, among the bowls there are many with medium and even weakly profiled shoulders. But among the bowls predominate specimens with straight necks, abruptly connecting to the shoulders. In the pots is encountered an ornament in the form of a polished groove and ring-shaped ledge on the shoulders or below the neck. Generally pots of this group have more clearly expressed early signs than bowls do. As already noted, the vessels with the highest number of early signs are accompanied by Middle LatÃ¨ne dissected fibulae, of wire, non-ornamented of type B-Kostrrzewski and ÐÐ¢-I, ÐÐ¢-II, ÐÐ¢-III. Temporally this is the earliest period of the Zarubintsy culture, which, possibly, coincides exactly with LaTÃ¨ne C1b and almost the whole interval of LaTÃ¨ne C2 (from the end of the 3rd cent. BCE to 120-116 BCE) or a little earlier, which, possibly coincides with phase A1 of the Przeworsk culture, according to T. DÄ browska.
To the second grouping belong vessels with three early signs and, accordingly, with two - four late ones. In this group, increases the number of cups and there are less pitchers. Among the pots there becomes fewer specimens with very strongly and strongly profiled shoulders. Significantly was reduced the quantity of vessels with a straight line of the neck, abruptly turning into shoulders. The number grew of vessels with a straight line of the shoulders and the lower part. The vessels of the second group were accompanied by fibulae type B-Kostrzewski, ÐÐ¢-I, ÐÐ¢-II ÐÐ¢-III and also ÐÐ¢-IVÐ°. Chronological reference points of this grouping are derivatives of fibulae of type D, G, M-Kostrzewski (as proposed in the typology work - D/E, D/B, G/H, M3a). Burials with vessels and fibulae of this grouping represent the second chronological period, which covers the very end of LaTÃ¨ne C2 and all of LaTÃ¨ne D1 (from 120/116 BCE or a little earlier to 60/50 BCE) which almost corresponds to period A2 of the Przeworsk Culture, according to T. DÄ browska.
The third grouping combines pottery with a minimum quantity early signs (one - two) or with only a few late ones. In pots and mugs of the early signs most often are encountered a raised line of the shoulders or the lower part. However, in a single vessel both signs are rarely encountered. Among the bowls predominate specimens with one early or only with late signs. Of the early ones more often than not is encountered a straight line of neck or convex line of shoulders. Among the fibulae, which mark the chronology of this period, there are varieties of Late LatÃ¨ne schemes of types M-and N-Kostrzewski and also of the fibula of Early Roman style. Of the fibulae of Zarubintsy type predominate with a developed catch-plate ÐÐ¢-IVÐ°, ÐÐ¢-IVÐ± and even ÐÐ¢-IVÐ². Occasionally type-B-Kostrzewski is also still encountered. Materials of the third grouping represent the third chronological period. It covers LaTÃ¨ne D2 and the transition period from Late LatÃ¨ne to Early Roman in Eastern Europe, which includes the periods A/D3 and partly Early Roman B1. In absolute dates that fits into the framework of 60/50 BCE to 50-70 CE. Towards the end of that period cease to function the cemeteries of Polesie, known to date.
Pottery of classes Ð`, Ð' and Ð" was also manufactured by local Zarubintsy craftswomen, although it was not particularly widespread in Zarubintsy culture. Therefore, it also should have reflected to some degree, the style trends of pottery trade, of the time of its manufacture. Almost all kinds of pottery of Class Ð` (bowls, cups, pots, goblets, chalices) are recorded in the burials with different types of fibulae. But because of their scarcity no clarification can be obtained of any patterns in the change in the individual signs. It is only possible to cancel that class Ð` pottery is encountered as well with those fibulae that record the begin of the Zarubintsy culture, as with those which mark its late period. Thus, in burial 26 of the Pirogov cemetery was found a Scythoid bowl with raised strongly profiled shoulders, but the quality of the polishing was already Zarubinetsy. The bowl was found together with a shard of a black-polished Zarubintsy vessel with a fibula of dissected type P2. Fibulae of types N1Ð± and Ambroz group 15, series 1, variant 1 in burial 25 of the Chaplin cemetery accompanied a bowl of Class B with late chronological signs - a straight line of the shoulders. A fibula of type ÐÐ¢-IVÐ± accompanies a chalice in burial 66 of the cemetery of Velemichi-1, in which were reported only late signs - medium profiled concave shoulders and a straight line of the lower part.
Class Ð' bowls by themselves are an indicator of the concluding period of the Zarubintsy culture. A.M. Oblomsky believes that they appeared in Zarubintsy culture as an imitation of the antique red-lacquered prototypes in the middle of 1st cent. and may indicate the existence of Zarubintsy sites still in the framework of the third quarter of the first century. [Oblomskiy 1987, 1993, p. 43]. A bowl of Class B is recorded with ÐÐ¢-IVÐ° fibulae in burial 125 on the Pirogov cemetery, and in Rakhny a bowl of class B in burial 4 was found with a shard of fibula ÐÐ¢-IVÐ², shards of oculate fibulae Almgren 58/159 and an Early Roman fibula with weakly planned button.
Pottery of class Ð" (beakers) were marked with fibulae ÐÐ¢-I and of Middle LatÃ¨ne type II.2, in burials 4 and 9 of the Voronino cemetery, with type ÐÐ¢-IVÐ° in burial 159 in Pirogov and with Late LatÃ¨ne types M2Ð° in burial number 20 in Semuradtsy, that is, with fibulae of various periods of the development of the Zarubintsy culture. Saying anything definite about the chronological signs of pottery of class Ð" is difficult because of the limited number of both the signs themselves in the vessels of this class, and because of the very small number of the pottery itself.
Thus, about the chronology of vessels of classes Ð` and Ð", if they are taken by themselves, to say anything definite is often difficult. But they usually are found in the burials with pottery of class Ð, which helps to refine their chronology and to correlate with this or the other chronological period.
So, based on materials investigated to date cemeteries can be divided into four periods in the development of the Zarubintsy culture, which by dating objects fit into the framework from Middle LatÃ¨ne period C1b to Early Roman B2a, inclusive, when in the Middle Dnieper there remained settlements, mainly with floodplain topography, although also encountered on capes. Dating objects point to a continuation of their functioning also in the Early Roman period B2b. These settlement points belong to the concluding period of the Zarubintsy culture, which begins about from the middle of the 1st cent. from the appearance of bowls of class Ð'.
Life on the individual Zarubintsy sites proceeded at different time intervals in the framework of the functioning of the culture itself. Chronology and periodization of some of them can be clarified.
The cemetery Voronin.
By the excavations, which were carried out by Yu.V. Kukharenko, were opened 52 burials, chronologically determinable are 45 or 86.5% of the burials (Table 7).
To the first period, the earliest, may date back three burials. Those are burial 21, in which a woman was buried. (At the division of burials by sex sign were used the guidelines of V.E. Eremenko and other researchers). To this period may date back burial 26 (male) and 31 (cenotaph). In it were not found dating objects, but the pottery is characterized by a complete set of early signs. The pottery in the male and female burials are of various kinds and types (pot, goblet, cup).
Second period - 14 burials. In burial 14 (male) were combined vessels with the maximum set of early signs, that is corresponding to the first period, and vessels with three early signs, corresponding to the second period. This is phase "a" of the second period. In this burial there are no dating objects either.
To phase "b" of the second period date back 13 burials in which was found pottery with only three early signs. Eight female burials (4, 7, 9, 16, 24, 25, 36, 37), are dated by fibulae of type LT. 11.2a of burial 4, the combination of a dissected fibula P2 and of type Ð' from burial 25, of type ÐÐ¢-I of burial 9, of type Ð' of burial 16, ÐÐ¢-IVÐ° from burial 37. Male burials are 12, 13, 20 and 39, in the last one of them was found a fibula of type Ð'. To this same phase dates back the destroyed burial 51.
Ceramics of the second period was varied in its composition of object types (bowls, chalices, mugs, goblets, pots). In the male and female burials is found pottery of one single kind.
To the third period can be assigned 28 burials (approximately 53.8%).
To phase "Ð°" - the female burial 48 with a fibula ÐÐ¢-III and male burials 3, 15, 22, 27, diagnosed by a fibula of type Ð'. In these burials were found together with vessels with the presence of early signs characteristic for the second period, and pottery, in which predominate late signs characteristic of pottery of the third period.
To phase "Ð±" - burials with pottery, distinguished by a minimum set of early and dominated or only with late signs. These are female burials (1, 5, 8, 19, 29, 33, 35, 40, 42, 47), which are accompanied by fibulae ÐÐ¢-IVÐ° (burial 47), a fibula ÐÐ¢-IVÐ² (burial 19) and a combination of fibulae Type Ð' and ÐÐ¢-IVÐ± (burial 29). Male funerals (6, 17, 18, 23, 30, 38, 43, 44, 46, 50) are accompanied by a fibula of type B. The burials 11, 34 are cenotaphs, burial 52 is destroyed.
In terms of kinds and types ceramics of the third period is varied, in male and female burials is sometimes found pottery of a single type.
In the cemetery Voronino there are no fibulae of Late LaTÃ¨ne scheme, which in other cemeteries diagnosed LaTÃ¨ne D2, and there are also no bowls of Class Ð' - indicators of 50-70 CE, but there is encountered pot-like pottery with very weakly and weakly profiled shoulders, which also indicates the possible existence of the burial ground for some time in phase "Ð²" of the third period of Zarubintsy cemeteries.
In the burials of the second and third phase are recorded things of long chronological range - namely single-loop and multi-loop bronze bracelets, safety pins with a ring-shaped multi-loop head, pendants, beads, spirals, iron rings, paste beads.
The cemetery Velemichi-1.
Opened were 126 Zarubintsy burials, chronologically determinable turned out 95, or 75.4% (Table 8).
The first period.
By the combination of pottery with the highest number of early signs and fibulae accompanying such pottery to this period may date back seven burials. Female burials of this period (88 and 99) are accompanied by fibulae ÐÐ¢-II, five male ones by fibulae P1 (in burial 108) and B1 (in burial 67).
In the burials of the first period have been recorded bowls, pots, mugs, goblets and pitchers.
Second period - 25 burials. Female burials (in all 11 of them) are dated by fibulae of Zarubintsy type ÐÐ¢-II (in burial 56) and ÐÐ¢-IVÐ° (in burial 4), as well as by the combination of fibulae ÐÐ¢-III and B1 (in burial 60). To this period date back 13 male burials, in one of them (10) was found a fragment of a fibula of Middle LatÃ¨ne type. To this period belong two cenotaphs (7, 16) without dating objects.
The range of pottery in the second period is wider than the first. Cups and chalices appear, mugs increase.
Third Period - 65 burials (around 50%).
To phase "a" may date back five male burials, one of which (89) is accompanied by a fibula of type D/A arched. In these burials is jointly recorded pottery with a set of early signs, characteristic of the second period, as well as with a minimum set of early or only with late signs.
To phase "b" date back 24 female burials, in which were discovered fibulae ÐÐ¢-III, ÐÐ¢-IVÐ°, ÐÐ¢-IIIÐ±, ÐÐ¢-IVÐ², type B, as well as Late LatÃ¨ne type M1Ð°, N1Ð±, M1Ð², as well as burials with a combination of fibulae of different types (in burial 26 - ÐÐ¢-IVÐ° and M1Ð°, in burial 70 - type B and N1Ð², in burial 75 - N16 and N1Ð²). The group of male burials of phase "Ð±" of the third period, has 29 burials, which are dated by fibula of type B, B arched, M1Ð° and N1Ð². There is also six cenotaphs without fibulae, but with ceramics, in which predominate late signs.
Phase "Ð²" of the third period.
To the latest burials may date back burials 19, 29, 30, 47, 49, 80, in which pot-like pottery is characterized by very weakly and weakly profiled shoulders. However, the fibulae of type O in burial number 47 and type N1Ð² in burial 48, and the absence of bowls of class Ð' in the materials of the cemetery may indicate that the cemetery functioned only in the second half of the 1st cent. CE, perhaps, in its very beginning.
For the third period of the cemeteries all kinds of Zarubintsy pottery are typical. Changes are observed only in the correlation of quantities. Pitchers with a high neck practically do not occur, much more appear cups. Completely disappear bowls with handles. In general, all kinds of pottery are smaller in absolute size.
In the burials of all chronological periods, but mainly in the second and third, found jewelry, more rarely objects of the outcome of a wide chronological range. This is bronze safety pins with a spiral head, beads of vitreous paste, bronze pendants, rings and beads, details of the set of the zone.
The cemetery Velemichi-2.
Opened were 116 burials of the Zarubintsy time, of which 94 are chronologically determinable or 81% (Table 9).
First period - eight burials, five of them female, accompanied by fibulae ÐÐ¢-I, type B, and by the combination in one grave of fibulae of types ÐÐ¢-I and P3. Male burials - two, the chronology of which is determined by a fibula of type B. One infant burial without dating objects. Pottery found in these burials, is characterized by a maximum range of early signs.
The second period has 20 burials. It begins, probably, with three female burials, which are dated by fibulae ÐÐ¢-III and ÐÐ¢-IV6, - these are burials of phase "a". To this phase, perhaps, belongs also the male burial 80 with a fibula - derivative of type A and with traits of type D (D/A). In each burial of this phase is jointly found pottery with a maximum range of early signs and with three early signs. Only a pot from burial 80 is characterized by a full set of early signs, but the fibula does not correspond to the period of formation of LaTÃ¨neized cultures.
To the next phase "b" belong six female burials accompanied by fibulae of type B, ÐÐ¢-II and ÐÐ¢-III. To this same phase dates back a double burial of a woman and an infant (109) with three fibulae ÐÐ¢-III. Seven male burials and two cenotaphs have no dating objects. The pottery of these burials is characterized by three early signs.
The third period unites 67 burials. It begins with nine female burials, which are diagnosed by fibulae ÐÐ¢-IVÐ° in burial 7, fibulae type ÐÐ¢-III in combination with ÐÐ¢-IVÐ° in burial 5, 21, and ÐÐ¢-IVÐ± in combination with arched wire type N in burial 85.
To phase "Ð±" we attribute 54 burials, in which there is pottery with a minimal set of early signs and a maximum of late ones. These are female burials with fibulae of type B, ÐÐ¢-IVÐ°, ÐÐ¢-IVÐ±, ÐÐ¢-IVÐ² and in isolated cases with fibulae with undeveloped catch-plates - ÐÐ¢-III, as well as with different combinations of types of fibulae ÐÐ¢, as, for example, ÐÐ¢-IVÐ° and ÐÐ¢-IVÐ± in burial 25, ÐÐ¢-IVÐ± and ÐÐ¢-IVÐ² in burial 14, or by a joint find in one burial of fibulae of Zarubintsy type and of Late LaTÃ¨ne, for example, in burial 93 - ÐÐ¢-IVÐ² and N1Ð°, in burial 85 - ÐÐ¢-IVÐ± and N, in burial 86 - ÐÐ¢-IVÐ² and N. There have been recorded burials with combinations of different types of Late LaTÃ¨ne fibulae: in burial 100 - M and N, in burial 81 - N2Ð± and O3, or with a few Late LatÃ¨ne fibulae: in burial 78 - M3Ð°, in 102 - N1Ð°, in 101 and 50 - N1Ð±, 52 and 90 - N2Ð². Burials of men are usually accompanied by fibulae of types B, N1Ð°, N1Ð², N2Ð². One infant burial and six cenotaphs had no fibulae.
Pot-like pottery from female burials 58, 70, 73, 84, accompanied by fibulae with developed catch-plates, with a minimum of late signs, is characterized by very weakly and weakly profiled shoulders, which allows to attribute these burials to the end of the cemetery operation (phase "a"), which, perhaps, goes somewhat beyond the middle of the 1st cent. CE.
As also in the cemeteries Voronino and Velemichi-1, besides fibulae and pottery, in a few burials were found objects, the dating of which is wide and they can not substantially affect the chronology and periodization of the cemetery. Among them predominate bronze safety pins with a spiral head, beads of vitreous paste, bronze pendants, beads and rings.
The cemetery Otverzhichi.
Opened were 98 Zarubintsy burials, of which 81 are chronologically determinable (82.9%) (Table 10).
The first period
begins with burial 33, which was, probably, destroyed, and from which survived a pot of Milograd type with a rounded bottom. Perhaps this burial precedes the immediate LaTÃ¨nization of the local culture (phase "a"). The earliest Zarubintsy burials are two female ones with fibulae of type B/A (21) and with fibula of type ÐÐ¢-I (80). Three male burials and one cenotaph are without dating objects. The pottery of all these burials are with a maximum quantity of early signs (phase "b").
The second period
is opened by burials of phase "a", in which is found pottery with a maximum set of signs together with pottery, in which are already only three early signs. That's four female ones, one male one and one cenotaph - in none of them have been found dating objects.
To the following phase "Ð±" of this period belong 12 female burials with pottery in which there are three early signs, and some burials with fibulae ÐÐ¢-II, B, and ÐÐ¢-III and B; seven male burials, one infant one and a cenotaph without dating objects.
Phase "Ð°" of the third stage has six female burials, two male ones, one cenotaph, which have no fibulae in their inventory, and among the pottery there are specimens with three early signs and specimens including the maximum set of late signs.
To phase "Ð±" belong 12 female burials with fibulae of types ÐÐ¢-IVÐ°, ÐÐ¢-IVÐ±, ÐÐ¢-IVÐ², M3Ð±. Among the two infant burials is a burial with a fibula ÐÐ¢-III; among 14 male burials are burials with a fibula M1Ð². In six burial-cenotaphs there were no dating objectss.
Perhaps, the latest may be burials 28, 46 and 68, in which were found pot-like vessels of small forms (goblets, mugs, chalices) with weakly profiled shoulders.
The cemetery Pirogov.
On the cemetery were opened 260 Zarubintsy burials. This paper uses materials of 128, excavated by A.I. Kubyshev (Table 11).
The first period
of the cemetery begins with burials, done by cremation, but with a some details characteristic for the population of the preceding, Scythian period.
This refers to burial 7, in which the bones of the dead are not completely burned, in the grave was supplied a Scythoid bowl, but having already Zarubintsy character of the polishing, and placed a stone pestle, which gave a basis for Scythologs to attribute this burial to the Middle Scythian period, ie, to the 6th - 5th cent. BCE [Kovpanenko, Bessonova, Skoryy 1989, p. 256]. However, a stone pestle was found also in burial 6 of the Chaplin cemetery, and in burial 14 of this same cemetery was found a piece of a stone grinder [Pobol' 1971, pp. 127-128]. So also in the Middle Dnieper in the burial rites might well appear relics of previous customs. So much more since there is also burial 26 with a Scythoid bowl, the polishing of which is Zarubintsy, but it is accompanied already by a small fragment of Zarubintsy black-polished pot and a fibula of type P2 - with eight-shaped loops on the back - an attribute of the period of formation of the LaTÃ¨neized cultures. These burials symbolize the transition to the LaTÃ¨ne traditions in the cultural appearance of the indigenous population. The described burials may belong to phase "a" of the first period.
The remaining burials of this period are fully consistent with the Zarubintsy culture. The pottery has a maximum range of early signs (there occur a direct line of the neck, bulging strongly profiled shoulders, the line of the lower part is also convex). The pottery is varied in kind - pots, pitchers, bowls and cups, moreover are occur specimens of all these kinds of pottery, with or without handles. These burials can be assigned to phase "b". In all, to the first period of the cemetery belong 31 burials.
In the Middle Dnieper area very poorly work indirect signs to determine the sex of the dead, as beads, safety pins and other attributes of female burials occur rarely. As diagnostic signs remain only ÐÐ¢ fibulae and paired fibulae, so the quantity of ascribed female burials in the cemetery may be underestimated, especially as the anthropological analysis also rarely give an accurate determination of sex of the buried. We can only note that among the burials of the first period, there are also female ones - 2, 54, 87, 143, 159, 200. Burial 46 is an infant one. The burials of the first period are dated by the dissected fibulae of type P2 (26) and type P3 (129), which define this period as LaTÃ¨ne C1b and C2. Nor is this contradicted by fibulae of type B from burial 150, of type B/C arched from burial 193, ÐÐ¢-II from 150, ÐÐ¢-III from 143 (fig. 42).
Second period - 33 graves. It begins with burials, in which pottery with the maximum number of early signs occurs in some burials with pottery with three early signs - this is phase "a" - eight burials. In two of them, probably female, there are fibulae of type B and ÐÐ¢-III (burials 101 and 127).
The remaining burials are phase "Ð±", in which pottery is characterized by a uniform distribution of early and late signs. In this phase, there are no more Scythoid bowls and pitchers with handles, the main types of pottery become bowls, mugs and cups, goblets
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