Brown's peony (Paeonia brownii) is an increasingly rare wildflower of northwestern America. It is one of only two peony species native to North America and these two herbs have very different vegetative and floral organs compared to the "garden peonies" derived from the beautiful wild species of Mediterranean Europe and Asia. For one thing, the American species have large, gushing nectar glands forming a ring inside the nodding flowers.
Who are the pollinators and why? You may be surprised. Go to the link. When you get there hit the PDF icon to make the publication pop up. Flower and pollinator photos are in full color.