Victoria Transport Policy Institute
"Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"
Spring 2005 Vol. 8, No. 1
The Victoria Transport Policy Institute is an independent research
organization dedicated to developing innovative solutions to transportation
problems. The VTPI website (http://www.vtpi.org)
has many resources
addressing a wide range of transport planning and policy issues. VTPI also
provides consulting services.
ONLINE TDM ENCYCLOPEDIA
"This is a remarkable, well-documented and referenced resource. The title
belies its depth of information and usefulness for transportation and
transit planners, land use planners, even far-thinking engineers,
designers, and financial planners. Worth a look, as is the entire
website.It's a 'first stop' for most research and information inquiries."
- 'Essential Transportation Publications,' January 21, 2005 edition of the
"Urban Transportation Monitor" (www.urban-transportation-monitor.com), a
leading publication for transportation professionals. Thank you for the
The VTPI "Online TDM Encyclopedia" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm)
is the most
comprehensive resource available to help identify and evaluate innovative
management solutions to transport problems. We continually update and
expand the Encyclopedia. During the last two months we added the following
two new chapters, and updated many other chapters with new information.
"Bus Rapid Transit" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm120.htm)
. This chapter
describes bus system design features that significantly improve service
quality and cost efficiency.
"Funding Options" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm119.htm)
. This chapter
describes various ways to fund transportation programs, and evaluates the
degree to which they support TDM objectives.
We recently added the following documents to our website:
"Evaluating Transportation Equity: Methods For Incorporating Distributional
Impacts Into Transport Planning" (http://www.vtpi.org/equity.pdf)
This paper defines different types of transportation equity, discusses
various equity issues, and describes ways of incorporating equity into
"Well Measured: Developing Indicators for Comprehensive and Sustainable
Transport Planning" (http://www.vtpi.org/wellmeas.pdf)
This paper provides guidance on the selection of indicators for
comprehensive and sustainable transportation planning. It discusses the
concept of sustainability and the role of indicators in planning, describes
factors to consider when selecting indicators, identifies potential
problems with conventional indicators, describes examples of indicators and
indicator sets, and provides recommendations for selecting indicators for
use in a particular situation.
"Evaluating Public Transit Accessibility: 'Inclusive Design' Performance
Indicators For Public Transportation In Developing Countries"
, by Todd Litman and Tom Rickert.
This paper describes indicators for evaluating the quality of public
transport services provided to people with disabilities and other special
needs, suitable for use in developing countries. It discusses the concept
of 'inclusive design,' identifies suitable indicators, discusses factors to
consider when selecting indicators, describes examples of indicators
currently in use, and provides recommendations for selecting and using
indicators. Coauthor Tom Rickert is Executive Director of Access Exchange
SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION INDICATORS SUBCOMMITTEE
The Transportation Research Board appointed VTPI Executive Director Todd
Litman as Chair of the Sustainable Transportation Indicators Subcommittee
[ADD40T(1)]. This Subcommittee has established the following goals and
1. Become a clearinghouse for sustainable transportation indicators
2. Explore the general issues and principles that affect the selection of
3. Work to establish an officially-endorsed sustainable transportation
indicators best practices guidelines and evaluation framework. This can
include various sets of indicators and their data requirements, and
standardized practices for their collection and analysis.
Contact Todd Litman (litman@...
) for more information about the
Subcommittee, or to have your name added to a special email news list about
the committees activities.
A version of the VTPI website is available at the website of TRANBBS
, a nonprofit organization of Chinese
transportation professionals with more than 20,000 members.
VTPI Executive Director Todd Litman is scheduled to participate in the
following events this spring:
"Communities In Motion" (http://www.communitiesinmotion.org)
nonmotorized transportation, May 5-6, Boise, Idaho. Plenary presentation
and workshops on evaluating and planning nonmotorized transportation.
Pacific Northwest Regional Economic Conference (http://www.pnrec.org)
19-20, Bellingham, Washington. Presentations on economic evaluation of
transit and mobility management strategies.
"Canadian Institute of Transportation Engineers 2005 Annual Conference,"
, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, June 5-8. Keynote Speech
on future transportation trends and their implications for transport planning.
BEEN THERE - DONE THAT
The last few months have involved considerable travel to several wonderful
Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting. This was a busy event: Not
only did we organize a session on sustainable transportation indicators,
present five papers, chair a subcommittee, and participate in a special
workshop on transportation equity, we also brought our 12- and 15-year-old
children to Washington DC to enjoy a week exploring museums and urban life.
A good time was had by all!
"Community Challenges," Transportation Planning Workshop
Friday, January 28, Orlando, Florida.
Scandinavian Speaking Tour. During a twelve-day trip Todd Litman spoke at a
variety of seminars and workshops at Lund University (Sweden), the
Institute for Transportation Economics (Norway), TriVector (Sweden) and a
Pay-As-You-Drive Insurance workshop in The Netherlands.
A special thank you to our gracious hosts in many countries.
Pay-As-You-Drive (PAYD) refers to converting pricing vehicle insurance and
registration into distance-based fees, so motorists pay based on their
annual mileage (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm79.htm)
. We consider this one of
the most best pricing reforms for improving transportation system
efficiency and equity. We have been working to support this concept for
several years. Here is news regarding PAYD implementation.
Aryeh offers PAYD insurance in Israel, billed monthly using mileage data
collected by small wireless transmitters in vehicles and receivers at fuel
pumps, offered by PAZ (www.pazomat.co.il), the countrys largest petroleum
company. About 200,000 vehicles (about 15% of all vehicles, and a larger
portion of company and government agency cars) already have the device
installed for automatic payment.
Polis Direct Kilometre Policy (www.kilometerpolis.nl)
Polis Direct (www.polisdirect.nl), a major Dutch insurance company, began
offering their 'Kilometre Policy' in November 2004. Per-kilometer premiums
are calculated by dividing current premiums by the current policys maximum
annual kilometers, so a motorist who currently pays 500 for up to 20,000
kilometers would pay 0.025. At the end of the policy term motorists can
receive a rebate of up to 50% of their premium for lower mileage, or pay up
to 50% higher premiums if they drive more than the current maximum. Mileage
data is collected during annual vehicle inspections.
Norwich-Union PAYD Pilot Project
In 2003, Norwich-Union, the largest insurance group in the UK, began a
two-year pilot project of Pay-As-You-Drive insurance pricing involving
about 5,000 vehicles. Each participating vehicle is fitted with a small
data recorder which measures vehicle usage and automatically reports
mileage using mobile telephone technology.
General Motors and On-Star Offers PAYD Rates
Since mid-2004 the General Motors Acceptance Corporation (GMAC) Insurance
has offered mileage-based discounts to OnStar subscribers located in
certain states. The system automatically reports vehicle odometer reading
at the beginning and end of the policy term to verify vehicle mileage.
Motorist who drive less than specified annual mileage receive insurance
premium discounts of up to 40%.
NEDBANK PAY-PER-K Coverage (http://www.nedcor.co.za/press_payperK.asp)
Nedbank, a major South African insurer, offers 'Pay-Per-K' vehicle
insurance. Monthly premiums are based on the distance traveled in the
preceding month, and are debited monthly in arrears. Mileage is
automatically recorded each time the vehicle is refueled using a Nedbank card.
Progressive and Aviva Programs
The Progressive TripSense (https://tripsense.progressive.com)
offer low-mileage discounts up to 25%, using a small data collection device
that motorists plug into their engine diagnostic port. These policies are
currently only available in a few areas of the U.S. and Canada.
is a website and Blog (personal web log) about
Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance, maintained by Christof de Winter, a
student of environmental science at Utrecht University, in the Netherlands.
It provides news on PAYD insurance, as well as personal ideas and observations.
Contact Todd Litman (litman@...
) to have your name added to a special
email news list about PAYD issues.
Donald Shoup, "The High Cost of Free Parking," Planners Press,
, 2005, 733
This is a wonderful book. It address a critical planning issue in ways that
are accessible and entertaining to general readers. Using numerous stories,
examples, jokes and witty quotes, Shoup explains in a clear and persuasive
way why consumers can benefit overall if parking is priced rather than
free, and provides specific recommendations concerning how this can be
Shoup points out that there really is no free parking, except in the game
of Monopoly; the choice is between paying for parking facilities directly
or indirectly. The book explains why free parking:
* Is based on faulty planning practices and standards.
* Is economically wasteful, imposing large costs on governments,
businesses, and ultimately on consumers.
* Increases automobile ownership and use, exacerbating problems such as
traffic congestion, traffic accidents, pollution and sprawl.
* Makes it more difficult to find an available parking space, leading to
frustration and increased urban traffic congestion.
* Distorts development patterns, reducing land use efficiency.
* Degrades urban design, leading to ugly cities and buildings.
* Reduces housing affordability.
It describes successful examples of communities that have shifted from free
to paid parking and the benefits they have gained.
Although the book is entertaining, with at an illustrative story or joke
nearly every page of text, it takes no shortcuts. Quantitative factors are
carefully analyzed and referenced. Like an investigative reporter tracking
a hot story, Shoup has collected detailed information on parking facility,
parking errors, and the true history of parking planning decisions. There
are eight appendices.
"Creating Healthy Transportation For Children"
The following documents on healthy transportation for children were
recently completed by the Canadian Centre for Sustainable Transportation
and should soon be posted on their website (http://www.cstctd.org)
* "Child-and-Youth Friendly Land-Use and Transportation Guidelines," a 68
page document that explains how land-use and transport planning can be more
child and youth friendly.
* A six page booklet for Health and Recreation Professionals.
* A six page booklet for Educators.
* A six page booklet for Municipal Officials (elected and staff).
* A four page booklet for Parents.
Bruce Appleyard, "Livable Streets For Children: How Safe Routes To School
Programs Can Improve Street And Community Livability For Children," NCBW
Forum Article 3-7-05, National Bicycling and Walking Center
H.D. van Bohemen, "Ecological Engineering and Civil Engineering Works: A
Practical Set Of Ecological Engineering Principles For Road Infrastructure
And Coastal Management," Delft University of Technology, Road and Hydraulic
Engineering Institute, The Netherlands
This guide provides detailed information on evaluating and minimizing
ecological impacts of roads.
"Public Transit Benefits Study" (http://www.ccmm.qc.ca/public_transit)
A study by the Metropolitan Montreal Board of Trade titled "Public Transit:
A Powerful Engine For The Economic Development Of The Metropolitan Montreal
Area," evaluates the benefits of public transit. This document identifies a
positive link between public transit, economic development, and quality of
INFRAS and IWW, External Costs of Transport Update Study, published by the
Community of European Railway and Infrastructure Companies and the
International Union of Railways, October 2004; full report available at
Robert Cervero, et al, "Transit-Oriented Development in the United States:
Experience, Challenges, and Prospects," Transit Cooperative Research
Program, Transportation Research Board
This major report provides excellent, detailed information on Transit
Oriented Development, including impacts on transit ridership and property
values, lots of good case studies, and specific recommendations for
encouraging their development. The full report is large, making it
difficult to download and print, so I recommend ordering a hard copy if you
will be working with it.
Hank Dittmar and Gloria Ohland, "The New Transit Town: Best Practices in
Transit-Oriented Development," Island Press (www.islandpress.com), 2004.
This book provides information and guidance on Transit Oriented
Development, including discussion of their benefits, how to implement them,
and good case studies.
Please let us know if you have comments or questions about any information
in this newsletter, or if you would like to be removed from our mailing
list. And please pass this newsletter on to others who may find it useful.
Todd Litman, Director
Victoria Transport Policy Institute
"Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"
1250 Rudlin Street
Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, Canada
Phone & Fax: 250-360-1560