Victoria Transport Policy Institute
"Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"
Fall 2003 Vol. 6, No. 4
The Victoria Transport Policy Institute is an independent research
organization dedicated to developing innovative solutions to transportation
problems. The VTPI website (www.vtpi.org) has many resources addressing a
wide range of transport planning and policy issues. VTPI also provides
VTPI ONLINE TDM ENCYCLOPEDIA - UPDATES
The VTPI "Online TDM Encyclopedia" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm)
is the most
comprehensive resource available anywhere to help identify and evaluate
innovative management solutions to transport problems. We have been busy
expanding and updating the Encyclopedia. Below are new chapters. Many other
chapters have been updated and expanded.
* "Asset Management" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm109.htm)
Asset Management refers to policies and programs designed to preserve the
value of assets such as vehicles, roads, parking facilities and buildings,
which often support TDM.
* "Multi-Modal Access Guides" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm113.htm)
This chapter describes how to develop a Transportation Access Guide (TAG),
which provides concise, customized directions to a particular destination
by walking, cycling, driving and public transit.
* "Change Management" (http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm114.htm)
Change Management involves various attitudes, techniques and resources that
support innovation and reform. Change Management recognizes that there
tends to be inertia in existing institutions which must be overcome in
order to implement innovative solutions and create more efficient,
responsive and resilient systems.
OTHER NEW DOCUMENTS
We have posted several important new documents on our website.
William Vickrey, "Automobile Accidents, Tort Law, Externalities, and
Insurance: An Economists Critique," originally published in Law and
Contemporary Problems, 33, 1968 (http://www.vtpi.org/vic_acc.pdf)
This is a seminal article concerning traffic accident costs and vehicle
insurance pricing reform by Professor William Vickrey, winner of the 1996
Nobel Prize for economics. It describes how to determine the marginal
accident costs of vehicle travel, identifies several problems associated
with current insurance pricing and compensation practices, and proposes
innovative solutions. It recommends distance-based pricing, that is, basing
premiums directly on annual vehicle mileage.
"Financing Transit Systems Through Value Capture: An Annotated
Bibliography" (Previously titled: "Does Public Transit Service Raise Nearby
Property Values Enough To Pay For Itself Were The Value Captured?") Jeffery
J. Smith and Thomas A. Gihring (http://www.vtpi.org/smith.htm)
This paper examines research on the land value impacts of public transit
service, and particularly whether the value increases can repay some or all
of public transit service costs. It summarizes the results of more than 70
studies. Many studies indicate significant increases in property values
near transit stations, often representing enough incremental value and
potential tax revenue to fund a significant portion of transit investment
"Induced Travel Bibliography," By Robert Noland
This bibliography provides several dozen references concerning induced
vehicle travel and its implications.
Todd Litman, "Evaluating Criticism of Smart Growth"
This paper evaluates criticisms of Smart Growth land use policies. It
defines the concept of Smart Growth and the benefits it can provide. It
examines various criticisms of Smart Growth. This analysis indicates that
many claims by critics reflect an incomplete understanding of Smart Growth,
and inaccurate analysis.
"Economic Value of Walkability," Transportation Research Record 1828,
Transportation Research Board (www.trb.org), 2003, pp. 3-11; also available
at the VTPI website (www.vtpi.org/walkability.pdf).
This paper describes ways to quantify the value of walking (the activity)
and walkability (the quality of walking conditions, including safety,
comfort and convenience). Current transport planning practices tend to
undervalue walking. More comprehensive analysis can increase public support
for walking and other nonmotorized modes of travel.
"Measuring Transportation: Traffic, Mobility and Accessibility," ITE
Journal (www.ite.org), Vol. 73, No. 10, October 2003, pp. 28-32; available
at the VTPI website (www.vtpi.org/measure.pdf).
This article compares three approaches to measuring transportation system
performance and discusses their effects on planning decisions.
"Integrating Public Health Objectives in Transportation Decision-Making,"
American Journal of Health Promotion (www.healthpromotionjournal.com), Vol.
18, No. 1, Sept./Oct. 2003, pp. 103-108; also available at the VTPI website
This editorial explores how transportation decision-making can better
support public health objectives, including reduced crashes and pollution
emissions, and more physical activity. Raising the priority of health
objectives supports planning reforms that result in a more balanced
transportation system. Integrating health objectives into transportation
planning may be a cost-effective way to improve public health.
"Mobility Management," Sustainable Transport Sourcebook,
, published by the Sustainable Urban
Transport Project in Asia (www.sutp.org) and GTZ (www.gtz.de). The
Sourcebook is a toolkit to help policy-makers develop more sustainable
urban transportation systems. The full set of modules are now available in
print, and some are posted at the SUTP website
"Non-Motorized Transportation Demand Management," Sustainable Transport:
Planning for Walking and Cycling in Urban Environments (Rodney Tolley,
ed.), Woodhead Publishing Ltd (www.woodhead-publishing.com), 2003. This
book includes more than four-dozen chapters by leading experts in
nonmotorized transportation planning covering a wide range of issues.
PARKING MANAGEMENT BEST PRACTICES
As mentioned in our Summer newsletter, we are currently writing a "Parking
Management Best Practices" book, to be published by Planners Press. We
would like to find case studies and practioners experience implementing
any form of parking management strategies. Please let us know if you can
help with this project.
BEEN THERE - DONE THAT
During the last few months we have participated in several exciting events:
* "TDM and Planning: Best Practices," Travel Smart Program, Melbourne,
Australia, 24 November 2003. During this presentation a local planner
described how he had used information posted on the VTPI website to
overcome resistance to their parking management program and successfully
implement new policies. Its wonderful to receive such positive feedback!
* "Valuing Non-Motorized Transport," keynote presentation at the Connecting
Cycling Conference, 20 November 2003, Canberra, Australia
(www.bfa.asn.au/conference/index.htm). A wonderful conference covering all
aspects of bicycle planning and program development.
* "Sustainable Mobility: Reducing Car Use through TDM and Least-Cost
Planning," presented at the Institute for Sustainable Futures, Sydney,
Australia, 19 November 2003. This workshop attracted a diverse range of
transportation planning professionals from the Sydney region.
* "TOD Parking Management: Balance Between Transit and TOD Parking,"
, Atlanta, Georgia, 13 September
2003. This presentation described ways to use management strategies to
address parking problems around rail transit stations.
* "Transit Supportive Policies: Mobility Management and Smart Growth To
Increase BRT Ridership and Efficiency," presented at the Seminario
Internacional Sobre Las Implicaciones Del Provecto De Corredores Ecxlusivos
Para El Transporte Publico De La Ciudad De Mexico (International Seminar
Concerning Implications of Dedicated Busways In Mexico City), 3 September
2003. Mexico City officials are planning to construct a Bus Rapid Transit
system, similar to the successful TransMilenio Busway in Bogota, Columbia
(www.transmilenio.gov.co) and Bus Rapid Transit in Curitiba, Brazil. Our
presentation explored the benefits that such a system can provide, and
identified transport and land use policies to help optimize these benefits.
* "The Great Debate: Smart Growth Pro and Con," with Wendell Cox at the 2nd
Urban Streets Symposium, Anaheim, California, 30 July 2003. This was an
opportunity to examine and respond to criticisms of Smart Growth by a
leading advocate of urban sprawl and automobile dependency. For more
information see our paper "Evaluating Criticism of Smart Growth," described
The Victoria Transport Policy Institute announces a new partnership with
SIGEA (Sistemas Integrales de Gestión Ambiental or Integral Systems for
Environmental Management) in Mexico City. SIGEA is an established
environmental management firm directed by Dr. Leonardo Martínez Flores. It
will provide VTPI services directly in Mexico, and will work to promote
sustainable transportation concepts among decision makers.
Mexico is struggling with various problems resulting from growing motor
vehicle traffic. Addressing these problems will require innovative
management solutions to encourage more efficient use of transportation
resources. This requires more comprehensive analysis to help identify the
solutions that are most cost-effective overall, when all economic, social
and environmental impacts are considered.
Transportation Research Board (TRB) 83rd Annual Meeting (http://www.trb.org)
The TRB Annual Meeting is a major international event held each January in
Washington DC. This year it is likely to attract more than eight thousand
transportation professionals from all over the world. It is an opportunity
for people involved in a wide range of transportation research issues to
exchange information and collaborate on projects.
VTPI is involved in several sessions.
* Workshop 121 "Best Practices in Value Pricing," Sunday, January 11,
2004, 8:30 AM - 5:30 PM, Hilton. Litman: 'Economic Theory and Pricing
Reforms' and 'Non-facility Transportation Pricing Reforms'
* Session 421 "London: Pricing Sustainable Urban Transport," Hilton,
Tuesday, 8:009:45 AM. Litman: session coordinator (For an overview see
* Session 629 "Segway Technology and Experience," Hilton, Wednesday,
8:009:45 AM. Litman & Blair: 'Managing Personal Mobility Devices in
Nonmotorized Facilities' (04-2286)
* Session 698, "Nonmotorized Transport: Asia and Africa," Wednesday,
January 14, 2004, 2:30 PM - 4:00 PM, Hilton. Litman: 'Emerging Research
Issues in Nonmotorized Transport'(P04-1120)
3rd Annual New Partners for Smart Growth Conference
Portland, Oregon, January
On-line registration is now open for the 3rd Annual New Partners for Smart
Growth Conference. This multidisciplinary event will highlight cutting-edge
smart-growth issues and will feature the latest research, implementation
tools and strategies, successful case studies, new partners, new projects,
and new policies.
Pro Walk - Pro Bike Victoria 2004, September 7 10, 2004, Victoria, British
Next year, the major bi-annual international walking and cycling conference
will be held in our home town, Victoria, BC. The National Center for
Bicycling and Walking (NCBW) in Washington, DC is preparing the call for
papers for the Pro Walk Pro Bike conference, on the theme of "Creating
Active Communities", to focus on the link between community design and
health. Pro Walk - Pro Bike is a forum for sharing practical solutions,
best practices and successful strategies for supporting healthy and
sustainable lifestyles and transportation choices. It will both inspire
participants and provide them with specific, hands-on tools for making more
walkable and bicycle-friendly communities.
European Transport Pricing Initiative Newsletter
is produced by MC-ICAM, a pricing
reform research project.
Dom Nozzi, "Road to Ruin: An Introduction to Sprawl and How To Cure It,"
Praeger (www.praeger.com), 2003.
This book, written by a senior planner, discusses how automobile dependency
results in sprawled land use, and the economic, social and environmental
costs that result. It discusses the costs of sprawl, and recommends
specific policy and planning reforms to create more efficient land use
patterns and more balanced transportation systems, including various
mobility management strategies, walkable communities, improved street
design, and development regulatory reform. Provides recommended development
standards for urban centers, suburbs and rural areas.
Douglas Kolozsvari and Donald Shoup, "Turning Small Change Into Big
Changes," ACCESS 23, University of California Transportation Center
(www.uctc.net), Fall 2003, pp. 2-7.
Whether you are interested in urban redevelopment, parking management,
transportation demand management, or transportation pricing reform, you
should enjoy this short but sweet article describing the success of Old
Pasadenas downtown redevelopment financed by parking meter revenue.
Please let us know if you have comments or questions about any information
in this newsletter, or if you would like to be removed from our mailing
list. And please pass this newsletter on to others who may find it useful.
NOTE: Please use our current email address (litman@...
), rather than litman@...
, which will be
discontinued in the future.
Todd Litman, Director
Victoria Transport Policy Institute
"Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"
1250 Rudlin Street
Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, Canada
Phone & Fax: 250-360-1560