Mr. Baumgarten may be right on track.
The laws in force at the time may have been given a
There was a gap between law and enforcement.
Let all those who are what we call "Activists" leave and
what you have left is a population more to your suiting.
In particular, the "Activists" who settled in the Pittsburgh
area managed to make a dent in world history over the years.
It's All Relative
]On Behalf Of Bill Tarkulich
Sent: Thursday, April 27, 2006 9:20 PM
Subject: [Slovak-World] Re: illegal immigration
I just finished an interesting piece by Vladimir Baumgarten. He
comments that Magyar authorities knew they had a big problem in Upper
Hungary - many impovershed people who they really could not/would not
help rise out of their misery, and by letting them leave, it helped to
accellerate Magyarization (by a statistical flip.) For those two
reasons, Baumgarten argues, authorities took a the blind eye of
tolerance to emigration from these reasons.
It kind of backfired on them because once in america, immigrants began
political and social groups to organize pro-Rusyn and pro-Slovak
activism within their homeland!
--- In Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com, "Gregory J Kopchak" <greg@...> wrote:
> Great message.
> You made a very important point.
> It was easier to get into America than it was to
> get out of Upper Hungary (Slovakia).
> Most questionable documents had to do more with
> leaving and not arriving.
> The Magyarization program of the Austro-Hungarian
> government only increased emigration attempts at
> the turn of the 20th Century.
> Greg Kopchak
> It's All Relative
> -----Original Message-----
> From: Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com
> [mailto:Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com]On Behalf Of Bill Tarkulich
> Sent: Thursday, April 27, 2006 3:29 AM
> To: Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com
> Subject: [Slovak-World] Re: illegal immigration
> Here are a few points about illegal immigration 100 years ago:
> 1. Every immigrant followed a somewhat unique path, has a unique story
> to tell.
> 2. If there was a rule, somebody along the way broke it. Even in
> Upper Hungary (Slovakia), most people left the country, especially in
> Rusyn regions, small villages and poor areas (the majority of
> immigrants), without an official passport. It was too much of a
> hassle to get one. Usually they left with some sort of
> official-looking document that could not be read by the agents in the
> port of departure. But it looked good.
> 3. While stories of re-using a passport make great stories, it's been
> my experience that while this was done, it was only by a very few
> 4. There are a lot of myths and stories that have been romanticized
> over the century; be careful what you believe unless you can
> corroborate it.
> 5. Most people were honest and did not want to be jailed or deported.
> Most people did follow most of the rules.
> 6. It does not suprise me that most people find very little paperwork,
> unless your immigrant was a bigshot.
> 7. Paperwork was much, much less rigorous than today. The notion of
> "positive identification" photo-IDs, Social security numbers,
> signature verification cards, etc. were simply not considered
> necessary or in-use.
> 8. Coming to America (or whereever) whas a two step process: emigrate
> (leave a country) and immigrate (arrive in a country)
> 8a. As long as the US quotas allowed, there was no reason to immigrate
> 8b. Emigration was just something people did, especially the poor and
> desparate. Your main objective was leaving.
> 9. Interesting, a good chunk of these people who left with "improper"
> paperwork, traveled back (pre-ww1) and forth. Once your became a
> "resident alien" it was fine.
> 10. Hungary was a vast country with many language and many cultures.
> It was a nation of nations. This also made governing it quite
> unwieldly. The union of Austria and Hungary just made the situation
> 11. Every generalization I have made is just that, a generalization.
> Exceptions abound.
> --- In Slovak-World@yahoogroups.com, "Gregory J Kopchak" <greg@> wrote:
> > J. Michutka
> > Starting in 1903 it was even illegal to possess information on
> > if you lived in Slovakia (Upper Hungary).
> > It could be the authorities had targeted the village because of
> > over excess immigration from the area..
> > Greg Kopchak
> > www.iarelative.com
> > From Joseph Grisak's autobiography:
> > http://www.saed.kent.edu/~lucak/topica/Grisak.pdf
> > (p. 87)When I left the old country, I did not write a letter home
> from the
> > waterfront in Bremen as was the custom. However, I did write after
> > a job and enclosed the General Pass that I borrowed with my
> > envelope was rather bulky and apparently it never reached my parents.
> > Later, I was told that it was good that my letter containing the
> Pass got
> > lost. <No explanation of why it was good that it got lost>
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