Genetic Evidence for the Aryan Roots of the Caste System
By Dr.Joseph D'souza
Posted April, 7, 2007, www.dalitnetwork.org
A large number of historians have long contested that the
dehumanizing and discriminating caste system has its origins in the
Aryan conquest of India. The Aryans constructed caste ideology as a
religious, political and social tool to rule the original inhabitants
of the land. The Aryan invasion thesis has been contested by some
historians and most recently by the extremist Hindutva forces who are
committed to the perpetuation of the caste system.
Finally, the Human Genome project analyzing the DNA composition of
humans has produced scientific evidence stating that the genetic
origin of the upper castes in India is more European than Asian.
I enclose below a large quotation from the results of the research
carried by Utah University in collaboration with Andhra University,
etc. But what follows is the main result of the research:
Analysis of these data demonstrated that the upper castes have a
higher affinity to Europeans than to Asians, and the upper castes are
significantly more similar to Europeans than are the lower castes.
Collectively, all five datasets show a trend toward upper castes
being more similar to Europeans, whereas lower castes are more
similar to Asians. We conclude that Indian castes are most likely to
be of proto-Asian origin with West Eurasian admixture resulting in
rank-related and sex-specific differences in the genetic affinities
of castes to Asians and Europeans.
This genetic evidence supports the long held view that caste slavery
was constructed by foreigners who entered India and who created an
elaborate social and spiritual system to dominate and rule the
original inhabitants of the land. This genetic finding is no less
important than the other finding which states that all human beings
have come from one pair of original parents.
Caste, Racism and Slavery
Regardless of this fact about our common origin, human civilization
is filled with examples of how one set of human beings has enslaved
others on the basis of color, ethnic identity, nationality and
religion. Human history is also replete with efforts to deal with
racism and slavery. The modern anti-slavery and anti-racism movement
has received another boost with the commemoration of the 200th
anniversary of the passing of the law that abolished the
transatlantic slave trade through the work of Wilberforce and others.
Abraham Lincoln said of Wilberforce, "Millions yet unborn will thank
God for the memory of this man.'' Watch the movie "Amazing Grace" if
you have not yet seen it.
Of all the slaveries inflicted on human beings, the caste system
stands out as the longest standing system designed to keep the Dalits
in perpetual slavery. Caste discrimination based on descent and
occupation is nothing less than apartheid. The Dalits are visible
victims of this invisible apartheid at work in Indian society. It is
hard to believe that this system and ideology has brainwashed Indians
for 3,000 years.
Given the scientific evidence and the social and moral arguments
against the caste system, is this not the century to abolish the
practice of the caste system globally?
Since the caste system degrades men, women and labor, it is
imperative that India abolishes the system first as it stands in the
way of India unleashing the full potential of its people and becoming
the global power it is capable of becoming! Abolish anything that
encourages the practice of the caste system, including caste-based
marriage advertisements. Abolish the practice of the caste system in
all religions by law!
More than the law, we must strengthen public opinion against this
system which is so divisive in nature and scope that today it impacts
all of life � politics, religion, education and economics, to name
just a few areas.
Extract from http://www.genome.org
The origins and affinities of the 1 billion people living on the
subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in
part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced
the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves,
Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from
the Northwest and diffused throughout the subcontinent. They
purportedly admixed with or displaced indigenous Dravidic-speaking
populations. Subsequently they may have established the Hindu caste
system and placed themselves primarily in castes of higher rank. To
explore the impact of West Eurasians on contemporary Indian caste
populations, we compared mtDNA (400 bp of hypervariable region 1 and
14 restriction site polymorphisms) and Y-chromosome (20 biallelic
polymorphisms and 5 short tandem repeats) variation in 265 males from
eight castes of different rank to 750 Africans, Asians, Europeans,
and other Indians. For maternally inherited mtDNA, each caste is most
similar to Asians. However, 20%�30% of Indian mtDNA haplotypes belong
to West Eurasian haplogroups, and the frequency of these haplotypes
is proportional to caste rank, the highest frequency of West Eurasian
haplotypes being found in the upper castes. In contrast, for
paternally inherited Y-chromosome variation each caste is more
similar to Europeans than to Asians. Moreover, the affinity to
Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most
similar to Europeans, particularly East Europeans. These findings are
consistent with greater West Eurasian male admixture with castes of
higher rank. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial genome and the Y
chromosome each represents only a single haploid locus and is more
susceptible to large stochastic variation, bottlenecks, and selective
sweeps. Thus, to increase the power of our analysis, we assayed 40
independent, biparentally inherited autosomal loci (1 LINE-1 and 39
Alu elements) in all of the caste and continental populations (∼600 individuals). Analysis of these data demonstrated that the upper castes have a higher affinity to Europeans than to Asians, and the upper castes are significantly more similar to Europeans than are the lower castes. Collectively, all five datasets show a trend toward upper castes being more similar to Europeans, whereas lower castes are more similar to Asians. We conclude that Indian castes are most likely to be of proto-Asian origin with West Eurasian admixture resulting in rank-related and sex-specific differences in the genetic affinities of castes to Asians and Europeans.