Venerable Bhante Sobhana,
Op 16-jun-2011, om 15:27 heeft sakyaputtiyo het volgende geschreven:
> According to Abhidhamma, as you pointed out the sammaa samaadhi as
> a supramundane path factor is available only in supramundane
> consciousnesses. As you said, the samaadhi of fruition absorption
> must be very very strong as it can be attained for extended period
> of time. But can the ekaggata cetasika present there be, at least
> technically called a path factor?
N: Samaadhi arising with fruition-consciousness, experiencing
nibbaana, can arise again and again during that life, but only in the
case of those who have developed both jhaana and vipassanaa.
Ekaggataa or samaadhi arising with lokuttara citta is accompanied by
lokuttara sammaasamaadhi and as such it is a path factor that is
lokuttara. In the case of lokuttara magga-citta it is lokuttara
kusala citta, and in the case of phalacitta it is lokuttara
vipaakacitta, the result of the magga-citta, no matter it arises in
the same process enlightenment is attained, or later on, many times
during that life.
> S: Another thing i would like to discuss is why in the suttas the
> Buddha always said that four material jhana as sammaa samaadhi and
> also that why he did not mention immaterial jhaana ?
N: I would say, often, but not always. For example, in the Anguttara
Nikaya, IV, 21, or, IX, 36.
Anguttara Nikaya IX.36
> Jhana Sutta
> Mental Absorption
> "I tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the
first jhana... the second jhana... the third... the fourth... the
dimension of the infinitude of space... the dimension of the
infinitude of consciousness... the dimension of nothingness. I tell
you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the dimension
of neither perception nor non-perception.
> "'I tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on
the first jhana.' Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it
said? There is the case where a monk, withdrawn from sensuality,
withdrawn from unskillful qualities, enters & remains in the first
jhana: rapture & pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by
directed thought & evaluation. He regards whatever phenomena there
that are connected with form, feeling, perception, fabrications, &
consciousness, as inconstant, stressful, a disease, a cancer, an
arrow, painful, an affliction, alien, a disintegration, an emptiness,
not-self. He turns his mind away from those phenomena, and having
done so, inclines his mind to the property of deathlessness: 'This is
peace, this is exquisite -- the resolution of all fabrications; the
relinquishment of all acquisitions; the ending of craving;
dispassion; cessation; Unbinding.'
N: When the Buddha spoke about jhaana the purpose was not to teach
people samatha, but to teach anattaa. Also people before the Buddha's
time knew how to develop the stages of jhaana. When someone emerged
from jhaana they could be mindful and develop understanding of the
jhaana factors and of any reality appearing at the present moment.
The jhaanacitta of aruupajhaana is of the same type as the highest
stage of ruupa-jhaana: jhaana factors have been abandoned stage by
stage, but the factors of samaadhi and indifferent feeling, upekkhaa
(instead of somanassa) remain.
The sutta quoted above, explains that he should be aware of 'whatever
phenomena there are'.
N: There is no rule that everybody should develop mundane jhaana in
order to attain enlightenment. We read in the suttas that the Buddha
knew the different faculties of different people.
We read in the Puggala Pa~n~natti, the Fourth Book of the Abhidhamma :
(1, 30): ‘Which is the person who is twice-liberated (ubhatobhaaga-
vimutta)? It is one who, in his own person, has attained to the eight
liberations (jhaanas), and through wise penetration his taints
(aasava) have come to extinction.’
(1, 31) ‘Which is the person who is liberated by wisdom (pa~n~naa-
vimutta)? It is one who has not attained, in his own person, to the
eight liberations, but through wise penetration his taints have come
to extinction.’ ~
Pali: Katamo ca puggalo paññāvimutto? Idhekacco puggalo na heva kho
aṭṭha vimokkhe kāyena phusitvā viharati paññāya cassa disvā
āsavā parikkhīṇā honti. Ayaṃ vuccati puggalo paññāvimutto.
Also Ven. Henepola gives an explanation of the Susima sutta and
commentary re dry insight.
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