no 8: Rootless cittas.
Each citta experiences an object. There is not only one type of
citta, but there is a great diversity of cittas that experience
objects. If we want to know ourselves we should not merely know the
moments of akusala cittas or kusala cittas but other moments as well.
Kusala cittas and akusala cittas are cittas that are cause, they can
motivate good or evil deeds, and these deeds can produce their
appropriate results later on. Kusala cittas and akusala cittas are
accompanied by cetasikas that are roots, hetus. As we have seen,
three of these hetus are akusala; they are: lobha (attachment), dosa
(aversion) and moha (ignorance). Three hetus are sobhana (beautiful);
they are: alobha (greedlessness or generosity), adosa (non-hate or
loving kindness) and amoha (paññå or wisdom). The citta or cetasika
which is accompanied by a hetu is sahetuka (``sa'' means ``with'').
For example, dosa-múla-citta, citta rooted in dosa, is sahetuka; moha
and dosa are the hetus which arise with dosa-múla-citta.
There are also cittas that are rootless, ahetuka. There are many
ahetuka cittas arising in a day. Seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting
and the experience of tangible object through the bodysense are
ahetuka vipaakacittas. Nobody can cause the arising of seeing,
hearing or the other sense-cognitions; they are the results of kamma,
a deed performed in the past. An evil deed produces akusala
vipaakacitta and a good deed produces kusala vipaakacitta. Seeing
that is akusala vipaakacitta experiences an unpleasant object and
seeing that is kusala vipaakacitta experiences a pleasant object.
There are two kinds of ahetuka vipåkacitta experiencing an object
through each of the five sense-doors: one is akusala vipåka and one
is kusala vipåka. Thus, there are five pairs of ahetuka vipåkacittas
which arise depending on the five sense-doors. These five pairs are
called in Pali: dvi-pa~nca-vi~n~naa.na (two times five vi~n~naa.na).
When a pleasant or an unpleasant object impinges on the eyesense,
seeing-consciousness only experiences what appears through the eyes,
there is no like or dislike yet of the object. Seeing-consciousness
is an ahetuka vipåkacitta. Cittas which like or dislike the object
arise later on; these are sahetuka cittas (arising with hetus).
Seeing is not the same as thinking of what is seen. When one uses the
word ``seeing'' one usually means: paying attention to the shape and
form of something and knowing what it is, such as a person or a
thing. However, there must also be a kind of citta which merely sees
visible object, and this citta does not know anything else. What is
seen we can call ``visible object'' or ``colour''; what is meant is:
what appears through the eyes.
Whenever we see, hear, smell, taste or experience tangible object
through the bodysense, there are ahetuka vipaakacittas before akusala
cittas or kusala cittas arise. The citta which dislikes the object
may arise afterwards. This citta is ``sahetuka'', with hetus (roots);
it is akusala citta rooted in dosa, aversion, and it is accompanied
by unpleasant feeling. Or the citta which likes the object may arise;
this citta is also ``sahetuka'', rooted in lobha, attachment, and it
may be accompanied by pleasant feeling or by indifferent feeling. We
are inclined to think that the dvi-pa~nca-vi~n~naa.na, such as seeing
or hearing, can occur at the same time as like or dislike of the
object, but this is not so. Different cittas arise at different
moments and the feelings which accompany the cittas are different
too; these realities arise each because of their own conditions and
they are non-self.
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