(1) We often say p-type or n-type molecular materials. Can someone
explain why some materials are n-type whereas some others are p-type?
Are there any certain doping methods and doping mechanism for organic
(2)Charge carriers in molecular materials are widely accepted to be
solitons, polarons and bipolarons. What are the connections between
these carriers and the holes (or electrons)?
(3) In conducting polymers, carriers like solitons, polarons and
bipolarons are believed to be produced by defects. Then will these
defects behave like charge traps? Can we say conducting polymers have
intrinsic charge traps?
Any discussions are appreciated.