"Ms. Heinz Kerry's background brings up a debate:
is she an African-American?
Ms. Heinz Kerry refers to herself as African American,
which has caused some controversy.
[Article: Who is African-American]
Heinz Kerry sometimes describes
herself as an "African American,"
Throughout the 1990s, Heinz Kerry
referred to herself as "African American,"
And when her use of the term set off a firestorm
of controversy in 1993, she defended the claim.
[Article: Not a simple matter of black and white]
"The term "African-American"
does less to define ... than divide ..."
[Article: America's label game misses diversity of race]
((POSTING CONTRIBUTOR'S NOTE:
BETWEEN Jesse Jackson's nonsensical demand that
"any American of African descent" be referred to
as `African-American' AND the Census Bureau's
subsequent hopelessly flawed `revised' form
. the term `African-American'
has become one of complete controversy.
Originally it was used to describe the `Middle Passage
Voyage' (i.e. from `Africa'- to `America') then it
was used to describe the ethnic grouping of people
who were descendents of the survivors of that `voyage'
and the slavery `system' that followed then, thanks
to Jackson and the USCB, it moronically has been
expanded to refer to "any American of African descent".
Personally, I feel that words such as `Black' and
`African-American' are BOTH completely erroneous
terms to use in describing this largely MGM
Tri-racially "Mixed" Ethnic group of people.
Use of the word `African-American', to describe this
group, generally leads the hearer to naturally make
a neuro-linguistic assumption-based error that the
term is indicative of it's subject being someone who
is "sole or predominantly" of a black-admixture.
[In reality, researchers, geneticists, historians and
anthropologists have repeatedly proven, detailed and
documented that the majority of those people who are
members multi-racial Ethnic grouping (more than 70%,
in fact) have about 25% `white' "racial" admixture
(i.e. ranges from 20% in some and 30% in others)
and even more than 25% 'Amerindian' "racial"
admixture (see links below for more information)]
Use of the term `Black' to describe this group is also
inappropriate both for the reason listed above as
well as for the fact that the term was only used in the
1960's and 1970's as being reflective of an anti-racist /
anti-colonialist / pan-African socio-political
"identification" with the, now rather phased
out, "black-power" movement of that era.
The term "Black" was never meant for use as a
`racial-descriptor' for the people of this ethnicity
but rather it was actually meant to be used merely as a
way of describing an emerging "political consciousness"
and "cultural connection" being expressed and "identified"
among many of the younger members of a given group
in an certain era in history for a particular purpose.
Referring to an 'Ethnic' group by a 'Racial' term
is inaccurate, causes confusing, leads to
'lineage-denial' and results in nothing more
than an adherence to the infamous one-drop-rule.
Being an "Ethnic" grouping, the "African-Americans"
DO NOT neatly fit into any 'singular' so-called
"racial" categorization (including that of "black").
Just as many 'Jewish' people will openly state that
their "Ethnicity" cannot be described as being only
'white'-"raced" (as the 'Jewish' people overlap
multiple racial categories as a result of their lineage),
the 'African-American' "Ethnicity" also cannot
be described as being only 'black'-"raced".
(This is one of many reasons why African-Americans
are not generally seen as being 'black-'"raced"
anywhere in the world other than the U.S.)
The reason for this is not only because of their
'Multi-Generational Multiracial' lineage --- but also
because the term "Black" (like the term 'White' or 'Asian')
would be used to be used to describe a "Racial" category
-- not an "Ethnic" category (and the 'African-Americans'
-- again -- are an "Ethnic", not a "Racial", grouping.)
All "Ethnic" groupings are able to fit
under MANY number of racial categories.
For example, there are
(ex. Diana Ross)
(ex. Hilary Clinton)
(ex. Elizabeth Atkins Bowman)
(ex. Lenny Kravitz)
Just as there are
"Asian"-identified `Amerasians' (ex. Russel Wong)
"White"-identified `Amerasians' (ex. Keanu Reeves)
"Multi-racial"-identified `Amerasians' (ex. Dean Cain)
All of these individuals belong to "ethnic" groups.
Ethnic groups can fit into and overlap across
any number of "racial" categorizations.
No "Ethnic" group should ever be forced to fit itself
into only one so-called "Racial" category and
this is particularly true when said "Ethic" group
was formed via a "Multi-Generational Multiracial"
lineage, heritage and historical experience.))
THE DIFFERENCE RE:'SEMANTIC TERMINOLOGY'
***African-Americans are ...
an ETHNIC group composed of multiple-"races"
(ex. African-Amerindian-European admixtures*)
***Black-American are ...
a RACE group composed of multiple-"ethnicities"
(ex. Nigerian, Rwandan, Angolan, etc.)
***African-Americans are "multi"-racial (tri-racial*)
***Black-Americans are "mono"-racial (black)
***The African-American Ethnic group is about 400 years old.
***The Black-American Ethnic groups
are thousands of years old.
***When African-Americans call themselves "black",
they are generally referring to their particular
'socio-political' "identification" (as most are
more than aware of their multiracial lineage).
***When Black-Americans call themselves "black",
they are generally referring to their particular
'racial' "identification" and lineage.
Both groups are very proud of their 'black heritage'
However, one group is a "multi-racial" ETHNIC
group (African-Americans) while the other is
a "mono-racial" RACE group (Black-Americans).
Just as Amer-Indians and Eastern-Indians are both
called "Indians" -- yet are two different groups with
two seperate heritages, the same applies to the
African-Americans and the Black-Americans.
The terms African-American and Black-American are not
synonymous and should not be used interchangeably.
It is only as a result of political-correctness, turning us into
a nation of cultural-illiterates, that people tend to do so.
Per DNA-testing; genetic research and historical record,
it has been repeatedly proven that the AVERAGE person
belonging to the multi-racial "ethnic" group, currently
mis-nomered as `AFRICAN-AMERICAN'(more than
70% of the ethnicity, in fact) has a lineage containing:
***A 'European admixture' ranging from 20%-30%
(some have more -- ex. 40-60%, some
have slightly less -- ex. 20% or less)
***An 'Amerindian admixture' ranging from 25%-35%
(many have an even higher range)
***An `African admixture' 50- 60%
These admixtures are found in varying amounts and
percentages as very few `African-Americans' (AA)
have any `recent' ancestors (recent meaning within
4 generations or more) who were "mono"-racial.
Genes, Peoples, and Languages
(-- Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza)
"Cavalli-Sforza has been the leading architect
of a revolution (even a paradigm shift) in
human genetics since the 1960s.
Because of his work, geneticists no longer think that
the human species is divided into color-coded races.
By correlating global studies of genetic markers
with archeological evidence and patterns of
linguistic change, Cavalli-Sforza attempts
to track the earliest mass migrations
he is confident enough to state that ...
FROM A GENETIC STANDPOINT,
"IT APPEARS THAT
HAVE...AN AVERAGE OF 30 PERCENT OF
WHITE ADMIXTURE" IN THEIR GENES".
From the vantage point of DNA, according
to Cavalli-Sforza, the idea of separate
races is unscientific and fallacious
[[[ And the high amount of Amerindian
admixture found within this group should also
always be taken note of and remembered.
Contrary to popular myth, most AAs do not make a clain of
having a "white" or "indian" great-great-grand-whatever in
order to prove their continually and fully "mixed" lineage.
Most of their ancestors were some variety of
"mixed" individual (ex. Mulatto, Griffe,
Metisse, etc.) of a tri-racial lineage.
Thus, MOST (+70%) AAs are what is referred to as
MGM-Mixed (MGM=Multi-Generationally Multiracial).
Although MGM-Mixed is not the same as FGM-Mixed
(i.e. `First-Generationally Mixed' ex. bi-racial), it is
still a `category type' of Mixed/Multi-racial.
As a result of the infamous and racist "One-Drop Rule',
those who were of any part `black admixture' were simply
placed in the "mono"-racial category of "black" or
"colored" no matter how well known or proven that it
was that the person or family was, in fact, "multi-racial"
Most AAs have NO "mono"-racial ancestors for at least
the past 4 or more generations of their family as all of
these ancestors were likely some `variety' of "mixed".