However, I have read that the majority of Jewish Poles did not consider themselves Polish citizens at all. They were Jewish and spoke Yiddish. Many of them spoke no Polish whatsoever.
Of course they were Polish citizens. But one has to
understand how words were used at the time. In
everyday speech 'Poles' meant ethnic Poles, virtually
all Roman Catholic. Other groups were referred to by
their ethnicity - Jews, Germans, Ukrainians,
This terminology is used in the memoirs of Polish Jews
who lived in Poland in the 30's and 40's and seems to
have been accepted by all.