Dear Lenarda, Berling Army which became AK . You ve written this a couple of times so I thought I would offer the following: When the Germans invaded PolandMessage 1 of 67 , Nov 4, 2012View Source
"Berling Army which became AK". You've written this a couple of times so I thought I would offer the following:
When the Germans invaded Poland in 1939 the Poles never surrendered and vowed to carry on the fight. The ZWZ was established as the main resistance body [Zwiazek Walki Zbrojnej: Union of Armed Struggle] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zwi%C4%85zek_Walki_Zbrojnej
In 1942 the ZWZ was renamed the AK [Armia Krajowa: Home Army] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armia_Krajowa It was the AK that carried on most of the resistance activity in Poland, although there were many other partisan units. The Warsaw rising was an AK enterprise and the AK was loyal to, and commanded by, the Polish Government-in-exile in London. As the Red Army swept into Poland in 1944 there was some co-operation between the two, but it was limited and short-lived. The AK officially disbanded in January 1945. The end of the war saw massive repression of the AK; first by Soviet and then by Polish authorities. Some units carried on their underground activities against the communist regime under various names, WiN [Wolnosc i Niezawislosc: Freedom and Independence] being the most famous. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolno%C5%9B%C4%87_i_Niezawis%C5%82o%C5%9B%C4%87
The "Berling Army" on the other hand, misnamed as is the "Anders Army" existed from 1943, and was made up of Polish volunteers in the Soviet Union who did not manage to get out in the two evacuations to Iran. Colonel Zygmunt Berling was promoted to general by Stalin, who also put him in charge of the Polish 1st Tadeusz Kosciuszko Infantry Division. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_1st_Tadeusz_Ko%C5%9Bciuszko_Infantry_Division
Since his appointment, promotion and allegiance had nothing to do with the London Poles, he was branded a traitor and sentenced to death in absentia as a traitor toPoland. In August 1943 the Division was expanded to Corps strength [making him equal to General Anders in terms of command but not in size]. As the corps moved into Poland it began conscripting more Poles to its ranks. In March of 1944 the Corps was again upgraded to Army strength and became the First Polish Army. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Polish_Army_(1944%E2%80%931945) Now it was "Berling's Army" but his tenure was short-lived. He was personally relieved of his command by Stalin who was angry at Berling's attempted assistance to the Warsaw Rising (although there is some disagreement as to whether this was the actual reason.) After the war the First Polish Army was disbanded and its units went on to make up the People's Army of Poland http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People%27s_Army_of_Poland who were then given the job of actually fighting against the remnants of the AK who had not given up the struggle.
Best regards, Mark Ostrowski
Thanks Halina, fascinating. I will go through this on the weekend. In brief review, I wonder which year was a harder time in Poland - 1939 or 1944? Mark T.Message 67 of 67 , Nov 7, 2012View SourceThanks Halina, fascinating.I will go through this on the weekend.In brief review, I wonder which year was a harder time in Poland - 1939 or 1944?Mark T.
CanadaFrom: halinamcd <redcube@...>
Sent: Wednesday, November 7, 2012 9:08:48 PM
Subject: [www.Kresy-Siberia.org] Mieczyslaw Turkiewicz