Basically, you were dumped in Kazakhstan to survive as best you could.
The first stop I think was usually a collective farm. Many eventually
got out of the collective and into a town where they were able to rent a
hut or shed or room and work at whatever job was available, meanwhile
trading the clothes they'd brought with them for sustenance.
Much of the population of Kazakhstan died off or fled from the forced
collectivization of the 1930s. It therefore became a favored dumping
ground for Koreans, Poles, Germans, Ukrainians, and of course Russians
whom the NKVD wanted to get out of the way.
Alexsandr Solzhenitsyn was sentenced to a labor camp in Kazakhstan and
was later released into "free exile." He quipped that it was the same as
being in the Gulag except that you had to pay for your food. (He
actually slept the first few nights in the local jail and had to pay the
jailer to bring in something for him to eat.) However, he eventually got
a job as a teacher, so he fared all right.
-- Dan Ford, New Hampshire USA
On 5/31/2012 3:05 PM, Mark Turkiewicz wrote:
> the concept of 'free exiles'?