Hi Wladek, Thank you very much for all this information, I think Carol and Bozena were right, there is not enough open (and perhaps unbiased?) information toMessage 1 of 1 , Jun 28, 2007View SourceHi Wladek,Thank you very much for all this information, I think Carol and Bozena were right, there is not enough 'open' (and perhaps unbiased?) information to access and so it is difficult to find truthful and complete accounts of these atrocities.I was surprised to learn that the attacks on Poles continued on well after the War in Ukraine's newly acquired lands, although in retrospect I can see that the remaining Poles were 'excess to requirements' in the new Ukraine.However, I was recently told by a second cousin (in his late 70s) living in Nozdrzec, (which is in Poland approximately 20 kilometres from the present day Ukrainian border) that all young men were issued with army weapons to ward off the marauding Ukrainians, for several years after the war had finished! I thought he was exaggerating or his memory was playing tricks on him, but from what you have told us it seems as if he was recollecting accurately! He says that the attacks always occurred at night and, as a precaution, groups of Poles used to fire their weapons from attics or other high vantage points towards the horizon into the woodland, although it was too dark to see anything. Then when daylight broke they walked over to this area and collected any corpses or looked for signs of wounding. He explained that on most mornings any major evidence of the previous nights battle had been removed but occasionally they had to dispose of a body.Has anyone else heard of this type of occurrence happening after the War on the present day Polish/Ukrainian borders?With warmest regards,Krys
(Ipswich, UK)----- Original Message -----From: Walter OrlowskiSent: Thursday, June 28, 2007 8:15 PMSubject: [Kresy-Siberia] Re: Pomnik Bandery w Lwowie? Monument to Bandera in Lwow?
Let me try to answer as to what happened to the UPA-OUN units and
remnants of SS who were trapped in Poland after the Soviet takeover.
Let me first add an important fact, namely that the cleansing of
Poles in Tarnopol and Lwow region was taking place as the Russians
were approaching. In case of one village, it was being attacked by SS-
Galizien only several miles from the front ( I believe it was
Chodaczow Wielki) in disregard of the German orders to come to the
front. This was being done on orders from their leaders to kill as
many Poles as they could before the Russian could take over the area.
When the Russians quickly routed the Germans and Ukrainians in Brody,
the surviving Ukrainians did not stop running until they reached
Lwow. There the Germans reorganized the unit and sent them to
Slovakia where an all out uprising against the Nazis took place.
The UPA partisan units remained in Kresy. At first they were left
alone by the Russians who only controlled the towns and did not
bother as yet with the countryside. The remaining Poles tried to flee
to towns under Russian control as the UPA continued to murder those
they caught. However, the NKVD immediately began its extermination
campaign against the AK(Polish Underground Army) which left the UPA
in total control of the countryside and allowed them to move into
Lublin area and Lemko region in South Eastern Poland. As the number
of Poles and Jews dwindled the UPA turned on the Ukrainian
population. They began hunting for "Polish collaborators" among the
Ukrainians which often meant no more than being related by marriage
to a Pole or refusing to join their band. The men who refused would
have their throats cut. Remember, this was a year to two after a
terrible war ended. These men were insane with hatred.
The UPA, which inherited a plentiful arsenal from the retreating
Germans, continued its attacks on Poles, who used only poorly armed
militia against them By 1947 the Russians were ready to take them
on. That phase began with "Operation Wisla". The Russians used over a
quarter million men in their sweep east of the San and Bug river (our
Kresy) and the Polish forces numbered around 70,000 West of the river
border. What surprises me is how little one hears from the Ukrainians
about the Russian part of the operation. The result of the operation
was that most of the Lemkos and Ukrainians in the Lemko region were
physically moved to newly acquired territories of Pomorze and Zielona
Gora in the West. The Lemkos believe that they were unjustly punished
for crimes that they did not commit and the Polish Government has
since apologized for deporting them. The UPA was absent from the
Lemko region until the time that NKVD forced the AK (Polish
Underground Army) out of the region. UPA units fleeing the Russians
Before, during and after "Operation Wisla" The Russians deported
large number of Ukrainians both members of UPA-OUN but also at random
from the remaining population. The exact number is not known, but I
have read figures as high as 1.5-2 million people. Still some
underground activity by UPA occurred as late as 1950-1, when it
By the way, the Allies knew very well who the UPA-OUN and Ukrainian
SS was and what they did. Certainly, their field commanders knew and
objected to that political decision, but to no avail.
A thought on "citizenship" . Yes, the British used the argument that
the Ukrainians were "Polish Citizens" for their own propaganda
purposes, but not in determining the borders of Poland. The Curzon
line was the British proposal, and for that purpose the Ukrainians
were no longer "Polish Citizens" but Ukrainians.