Exactly. Worldwide, Janina's Polish book, Stalin's Ethnic
Cleansing, and its predecessor are the only books written
about the subject in depth. I should probably include my article with
the above for the southern provinces. If those
works were not written, there would be absolutely nothing on the
subject of (military) settlers, colonists, or whatever words one uses to
describe them. However, these terms are one and the same and can be
used interchangeably. Repeating--because one term is
used by those from one area, does not make the other term used by
those from another area incorrect by any means, even if written in a
book! After all, "A rose by any other name would smell as
The other day I wrote Aniela how many acres equaled one
morg. There were three different measurements for one morg:
Austrian, which is what I gave her since she wrote of the former Galicia,
Prussian, and Russian. I wrote I did not know whether the measurement
was standardized by the Polish Government after World War I.
Acreage may well have not been standardized until later in time.
This is only one of many areas that had to be standardized in interwar
Poland. Another was the railroad system of which there were also
three. So what I am stating here is Tarnopol most probably did
not go by either the standards or terminology of Wolyn or any other
woj. of the former Russian or Prussian partitions. By the way,
the Austrian morg measurement was the largest.
All books were written by people from the northern or central woj. and
from that standpoint. The southern provinces are not
represented. The writers did not live in the south, so they do
not and cannot know what was done there, how the colonies/settlements were
organized, or which terminology was used there.
In the south the word "military" did not precede either "settlement" or
"colony" or "settler," as it did in the northern or central areas, but all these
terms describing interwar osady or its settlers are still one and the
same. The word "military" is misleading (since the osady were not
military in the true sense of the word) and some feel offputting, so
it may have been better that this word was not included in the southern
provinces' settlements. In fact, A Concise History of
Poland (Cambridge University Press) states, "...and by encouraging the
settlement of military colonists [my bold], although the latter
were often deeply resented by the local non-Polish populations."
Antoni wrote about former Russian lands, which is your area. The
southern woj. were formerly Austrian lands, so Russia is not
pertinent. I still feel there is something to the fertility of
Tarnopol lands. This land may not have been granted to as
many veterans as in more northern provinces because it was
extremely valuable, and some say the most fertile land on the planet.
There is no specific documentation on the subject-at-large,
whether south, north, or central Kresy, that I am aware
of in any archive in the world. I myself checked with the Hoover
Institution at Stanford and also with the Pilsudski Institute in New York.
What I would like to know are the specific per woj./province breakdown
of land granted or sold to veterans. A list of ALL Kresy
settlements begun interwar would be nice too, but it does not exist or has not
yet been located or released. It could be that the list of osady
names was deliberately destroyed by the Russians or Ukrainians during or
after World War II, or perhaps this list is in either Moscow or
Ukraine. Thinking about it, one can see precisely why these documents
are no where to be found if they still exist. All Polish records must be
released and returned to Poland.