Dr. Susan A. Kassin and 13 collaborators published an article on how galaxies change "The Epoch of Disk Settling: z ~ 1 to Now" in the Astrophysical Journal. They included all shapes of galaxies in their study, even disturbed galaxies, as long as they were bright enough to obtain their spectra. Using observations with the 10 Meter Keck and the Hubble Space Telescope, they found that early galaxies were spectrally more disordered than later ones. The authors claim the galaxies formed the disk shapes we often see in nearby galaxies by a process of change. In nearby galaxies, the stars and gas often rotate in the same direction in a plane but this orderly pattern was not so evident in the era when z=1.
It is important when analyzing scientific claims to separate the stories from the underlying assumptions. What does z=1 mean? Z is a mathematical symbol. It has no actual existence in nature, since no one has actually seen a z. How do astronomers calculate the value of their z symbols? They start with their first law. What first law? The Bible predicts that in the last days mockers will come obfuscating that age of the plural heavens with a first law (arche ktiseous) that all things remain the same (2 Peter 3:3 - 6). Although the pagan Greeks tried to invent science, they were unsuccessful because they could not imagine a kosmos where matter is not continually changing itself. More than a thousand years later, medieval Catholic scholars laid the foundation for western science by imagining that the essence of substance is changeless. (In their theology, God was supposedly absolutely changeless, so they imagined that created matter is also unchanging). The assumption that matter is not changing itself became the basis for the western definitions of physics, empirical measuring, scientific methods and laws. Using this law-like assumption, astronomers compare ancient light with the light from local atoms. They call the galaxies whose light shines at 50% of the frequencies of modern atoms, the era when z=1.
Dr Susan is right that galaxies changed their shapes over the eons. This is visible, because we see the past at many ranges. We often find the earliest spiral galaxies clustered around large ellipticals. Some of those ancient cores shine at 9% of the frequencies of modern atoms. We observe strings of equally spaced star globs, like beads on a necklace, surrounding some of those early galaxies. At many ranges, we observe how streams of stars came out from the compact cores as billions of galaxies visibly grew into huge, local growth spirals. What is visible is a violation of the creed of all scientists, with which they contrived their empirical, mathematical versions of reality. This is why astronomers speculated about black holes, invisible matter, spreading vacuums, accretion of stars from dust and the vacuum of space-time stretching light. The scientific universe is 99% invisible in order to prevent what is visible from being so.
The picture is in the public domain, since it comes from NASA. Credit: NASA /ESA / G. Bacon, STScI. It is an artist's impression of an ancient super, luminous quasar (an ancient super bright galaxy that is compact like a star). The artist added a jet to the image, because many closer quasars and active galactic nuclei are observed to jet out streams of matter. Astronomers used an image of a distant super luminous quasar from the Hubble Space Telescope. They used an algorithm to subtract the core light using the negative image of a nearby star. They hoped to see dim stars around the core of the quasar. Astronomers saw nothing, no stars, no dust structure and of course no black hole, when they subtracted the light from the core. The press release compared this to seeing a forest fire without finding burning trees. "The forest fire is complete, not a tree is spared," said Rogier Windhurst of Arizona State University.
There is a simpler explanation that does not depend on black holes, undetectable accretion or dust falling into an invisible hole. What we see is the biblical creation, as spelled out in the Bible. First God created (completed action) the plural heavens and the earth. At the earliest stage, the Earth was not formed, without extension, until He continued to command light to continue to be. Indeed, light dithering around in matter gives it the ability to have extension. Half way through the creation week He continued to form the Sun, Moon and stars and continued to place them in the spreading place (Hebrew raqiya). According to the Bible, He continues to finish the heavens and the Earth, even after the six creation days. Indeed, the continents only fit together on a tiny globe, without major seas. A global expansion seam continues to form fresh earth crust in every ocean. We observe countless stars spreading out and coming out from the core of billions of galaxies. According to the Bible, He continues to call the stars to come out in unbroken continuity. He continues to spread out the plural heavens (not the vacuum of space) like a tent to dwell in. Evidently matter is continuing to receive form as a relation with light as God continues to command light to continue to be, exactly as stated in the Scriptures.
A scientifically minded person might ask, how could the universe form in only 6,000 years? We observe how the atomic clocks and the star stream orbits continue to accelerate outwards in countless galaxies. Just a few thousand years ago, our ancestors mentioned how the planets passed at close range, but they are far away today. Indeed, the optical parallax to the Sun has continued to decrease, even into the 21st century. The ancients described, as the Biblical Job did, how the earliest people lived for geological ages in few days. Indeed, we find the skull of our ancestors with enormous brows. The face is the only part of our skeleton that keeps growing as we age. If we lived for geological ages, our faces would grow Neanderthal but our grandchildren would have faces more like ours. This is what we find in the fossil record.
How great will be the triumph of the Word of God over science. Why would God want to make foolish the wise of this age? Man cannot come to know Him personally by means of philosophical wisdom (science); only by the faith of a sinner who trusts in His promises. He is taking the wise of this age. How? They have a first law, that all things remain the same and they obfuscate cosmic history with their notion that atoms are perpetual motion engines.