Archaic pagans believed that the planet gods were the controllers of history. Good or bad harvests, victories or defeats were caused by gods, perhaps because they failed to preform some ritual. They did not measure time, but rather tuned their lives to the observed cycles of nature. How could you measure what was sometimes chaotic, the observed paths of the heavenly bodies? They mentioned devastation when Venus passed and described the battle when a planet was shattered. Eventually the Babylonians invented angles for measuring the sky but they were not measuring time. They were predicting conjunctions for use with their 7,000 omens, which might recur if the planet god was not placated. They also used their calendars for celebrating how Marduk shattering the planet Tiamat. They even preserved the record of how their first kings reigned for tens of thousands of years - during the great time.
The Jewish concept of history also focused on God. At their festivals, they thanked God for the harvest and remembered how God freed them from Egyptian slavery. When they triumphed, their God gave them victory. When they were defeated, God allowed their enemy to subjugate them for their faithless disobedience. Their Scriptures also mentioned the shattering of a planet and close passages but forbade worshiping the planets or participating in Baal (Jupiter) or Ashtoreth (Venus) orgies. One of their sacred books recorded the geological changes that had transpired during the long lives of the early people who lived alongside dinosaurs (Job). Geological ages did not violate their genealogical records, since Jacob pointed out that the days and years of the son are shorter and worse than the days and years of the fathers. The Hebrews did not have a concept of an actual time since even their grammar did not have past, present or future verbs. Besides, Solomon recorded that olam (long time) exists in the mind. They looked for the climax of history when God would establish a righteous kingdom and people again would live like a tree.
Ancient calendars changed from 30-day months and 360-day years to 365 days with 11 days added to the moon's cycle to fit the sun. Over the centuries the planets became more distant and people forgot when a planet was crushed nearby during the age of their ancestors. Then the Greek philosophers tried to invent scientific reasoning to replace the planet-god omens.
One of the pagan philosophers, Plotinus, had a profound effect on the beginning of time. He explained nature using a god who exists outside of time. One of his disciples, Augustine, became a Christian and interpreted the Bible with Plotinus' notions. Augustine speculated that God created time in the beginning and that He exists in a timeless dimension and sees all the future. Augustine's ideas about time had a profound effect on all single-god religions. Hundreds of years later, philosophically minded friars adjusted Aristotle's system to fit the Bible. They accidentally "solved" the problem that prevented the Greeks from inventing an empirical science, the problem of everything changing. The new metaphysic was: the essence of substance is changeless. This became the dogma of the West, that matter is not intrinsically changing relationally.
Linear time began in the minds of Europeans when philosophers combined Augustine's ideas with the ticking of new pendulum clocks. Over the next few centuries, scientists built an empirical, symbolical version of mathematical reality - contriving thousands of measuring units from clock-time. Unlike the early people who claimed that planets sometimes moved chaotically, scientists used clocks to measure clock-like orbits.
Eventually scientists built massive telescopes for observing the history of the cosmos. What they observed produced myths even more ridiculous than the planet-god stories. The vacuum of space time was allegedly stretching all light passing through the void. This was necessary because ancient galaxies shone at tiny fractions of the frequencies of modern atomic clocks. They invented four times as much invisible matter as the natural kind because star stream orbits in billions of galaxies never following their clock-like laws. Supposedly the universe is crammed full of dark energy that pulls energy out of the vacuum to accelerate the expansion of the vacuum - thereby pushing distant galaxies away. Their most absurd myth concerns the explosion of a tiny speck of vacuum that created everything out of nothing. Astronomers, instead of accepting ancient light, filled the universe with magical, invisible things to preserve their blind creed that the essence of substance is changeless.
According to the Bible, Elohim created the plural heavens (the galaxies) first. At that early stage the Earth was without form until Elohim continued to command light to continue to be. It was then that substances began to have an extension as a relation with light. Indeed, matter is a dynamic relation with light, as countless experiments show. Half way through the creation week, Elohim continued to form the Sun, Moon and stars and continued to place them in the spreading place, Hebrew raqiya. We visibly confirm that the earliest galaxies were often tiny and naked, without starry appendages. We observe how the stars continued to emerge, often in equally spaced strings of star globs, as billions of galaxies at many ranges intrinsically grew into huge, local, growth spirals. The atomic clocks and the emerging star-streams are both observed to accelerate together as matter's volume continues to increase. What we observe is exactly what the Biblical God says He does in unbroken continuity, calling the stars to come out. Scientists sent two spin stabilized spacecraft out of the solar system 40 years ago. Their clock signals kept on accelerating with increasing distance (the past) at the Hubble ratio that astronomers use to estimate the distance to a galaxy using its observed light frequencies. We do not observe a single clock in billions of ancient galaxies clocking the frequencies of modern clocks.
Changing Earth Creationists predict that the Creator is about to make foolish the wise of this age, as He promised. Soon, ordinary people only lightly trained in philosophical reasoning, will believe the visible history of the cosmos as photographed by the telescopes. They will glorify the Creator who has taken the wise in their skills. Scientists will not be able to defend their blind faith in atomic perpetual motion. Why would God make a universe in which every clock and every orbit in billions of galaxies accelerates together? Man cannot come to know Him through philosophy, only by child-like faith in the sacrifice of Jesus for our sins. How great will be the triumph of the word of God over science!