Victoria Transport Policy
"Efficiency - Equity -
2000 Vol. 3, No. 2
The Victoria Transport Policy
Institute is an independent research
organization dedicated to developing
innovative solutions to transportation
problems. The VTPI website has
numerous information resources addressing a
wide range of transport planning
and policy issues. VTPI also provides
*NEW* VTPI ONLINE TDM
draft version of our "Online TDM Encyclopedia" is now posted athttp://www.vtpi.org/tdm
. This is a unique and
comprehensive resource for
Transportation Demand Management planning and
analysis. It is a practical
tool to help identify better ways to solve
The Encyclopedia provides the following
information on more than three
dozen TDM strategies:
· How the strategy can be implemented.
· Benefits and costs.
· Equity impacts.
Applications (where it is most appropriate).
· Barriers to implementation.
· References and resources for more information (many
available through the
Each strategy is rated in various
ways, including its support for TDM
objectives (congestion reduction, road
safety, consumer choice,
environmental protection, etc.), equity impacts, and
various geographic and organizational conditions. These
ratings can help
users select the best TDM strategies to consider for a
situation. For example, they can identify strategies that may be
appropriate for implementation by a suburban municipal government
address congestion and air pollution problems; a resort community
organization to reduce traffic problems and improve transport
non-drivers; or for a state/provincial government to improve the
economic efficiency of its transportation system.
Encyclopedia also has information on transportation price elasticities,
use pattern impacts on travel behavior, TDM evaluation, equity
planning practices, criticism of TDM, an extensive
bibliography, and other
sections to be determined.
You Can Help
The Online TDM
Encyclopedia is a work in progress. We plan to finalize it
during the next
few weeks, and will continually update it as new
available. A future version being developed with
support from Environment
Canada will have automatic searching and sorting
Our goal is
to make the Encyclopedia as comprehensive, accurate and useful
which is turning out to be quite a project. We had originally
expected it to
include about 100 pages of material, but there are already
more than 350
pages in fifty files, and additional information is being
We appreciate help. Please carefully review the chapter(s) on
strategies you know about, and send us your suggestions for
We are particularly interested in identifying the best
information on travel impacts, benefits, costs and equity impacts.
feedback on the assigned ratings. We also appreciate a short
suitable case studies, preferably with a website reference for
Thanks to the many colleagues who contribute to this
Gears: Win-Win Transportation Solutions In The Georgia
May 31, 2000, 7:00-8:30 pm.
Simon Fraser University Harbour Centre, Room
515 West Hasting, Vancouver, British Columbia.
Admission is free but
reservations are required.
Call 604-291-5100 or email city@...
This event will include a presentation by VTPI Director Todd
Litman on his
study of the status of TDM efforts in the Vancouver region
(i.e., who is
doing what), and analysis of the value and feasibility of
additional "Win-Win Transportation Solutions" to
transportation problems. These issues will be discussed by a
including Peter Ladner (editor of "Business in Vancouver"),
(Manager of Strategic Planning at TransLink, the regional
and land use planning authority) and Cheeying Ho (Executive
Better Environmentally Sound Transportation - B.E.S.T., an
We hope that this event will help raise
awareness and support for Win-Win
Solutions. This program is co-sponsored by
Environment Canada, the Simon
Fraser University City Program, B.E.S.T., and
the Samuel and Saidye
Bronfman Family Foundation. It is part of these
organizations' efforts to
explore the potential economic, social and
environmental benefits from
innovative strategies that increase
transportation system efficiency.
The "Shifting Gears" report
will be posted at the VTPI website by May 31.
The following new reports are now posted at our website: http://www.vtpi.org
"Pedestrian and Bicycle Planning: A Guide to Best Practices"
Todd Litman, Robin Blair, Bill Demopoulos, Nils Eddy, Anne Fritzel,
Laidlaw, Heath Maddox and Katherine Forster.
This guide covers all
aspects of pedestrian and bicycle planning. It
describes general nonmotorized
planning practices, how to measure and
predict nonmotorized travel, how to
evaluate and prioritize projects, and
how to implement various programs that
support nonmotorized transportation.
There are also appendices that provide
more detailed information on
planning, design and evaluation. It is intended
for policy makers, planners
and advocates who want the best current
information on ways to make their
communities better places for walking and
cycling. We believe it is the
most comprehensive and current guide on this
* "Making Walking and Cycling Safer: Lessons from
by John Pucher and Lewis Dijkstra
The neglect of
pedestrian and bicycling safety in the United States has
made these modes
relatively dangerous. Pedestrian fatalities are 36 times
bicycling fatalities are 11 times higher, than car occupant
fatalities per km
traveled. Walking and bicycling can be made quite safe,
however, as clearly
shown by the much lower fatality rates in The
Netherlands and Germany.
Pedestrian fatalities per billion km walked are
less than a tenth as high,
and bicyclist fatalities are only a quarter as
high, as in the United States.
The Netherlands and Germany have long
recognized the importance of pedestrian
and bicyclist safety. Over the past
two decades these countries have
undertaken a wide range of measures to
improve safety: better facilities for
walking and bicycling; urban design
sensitive to the needs of non-motorists;
traffic calming of residential
neighborhoods; restrictions on motor vehicle
use in cities; rigorous
traffic education of both motorists and
non-motorists; and strict
enforcement of traffic regulations protecting
pedestrians and bicyclists.
* "Clunker Mortgages and
Transportation Redlining; How the Mortgage Banking
Drains Cities and Spreads Sprawl"
by Patrick Hare
proposes a significant solution to two persistent planning
affordable housing and traffic congestion. The solution has no
It would also help solve both urban decline, and suburban
sprawl, and it
would increase transit ridership. The solution relies on
significant flaw in the mortgage approval system. Current
practices ignore basic land economics. Specifically, they
ignore the fact
that the household transportation expenses usually
increases as land costs
decline in suburban locations. Ignoring these extra
makes suburban housing look substantially more
affordable than urban housing
to banks reviewing mortgage qualifications.
This practice helps drain cities
of middle class families and transit
systems of riders, and fills highways
with cars and open land with houses.
It encourages sprawl. As described in
this paper, Near Transit Mortgages
(also called "Location Efficient
Mortgages") help correct this distortion.
A mortgage approval procedure
that reflects basic land economics means
larger mortgages for households that
buy homes where they can reduce their
cars expenses, and thus have more money
available for mortgage payments.
* "Sustainable Transport
Systems: Linkages Between Environmental Issues,
Non-Motorised Transport and Safety"
by Dinesh Mohan and Geetam Tiwari,
Transportation Research and Injury
Prevention Programme Indian Institute of
Technology, Delhi, India
This paper examines sustainable transportation
from a developing country
perspective. A sustainable transport system must
provide mobility and
accessibility to all residents in a safe and environment
friendly mode of
transport. This can be difficult when the needs of people in
income groups are considered. For example, if a large proportion of
population cannot afford to use motorised transport - private vehicles
public buses - then they must walk or cycle. Accommodating this
requires consideration of cyclist and pedestrian needs in transport
* "Estimation Of Generated Traffic By New
Developments: Current Practice
And Possible Improvements Based On Bangkok
by Shihana Sulaiha Mohamed and Kazunori Hokao
paper reviews current methods used to estimate generated traffic
new developments such as housing, shopping centres, conventional
hospitals, etc. It describes three case studies based on
Bangkok. It critiques current traffic generation prediction
models based on
ITE methods and data, and recommends better approaches that
take into account
additional demographic, economic and geographic factors.
It indicates that
this additional information is particularly important for
use in developing
* "Transportation Market Reforms for
by Todd Litman. A condensed version of this paper is
Transportation Research Record.
This paper evaluates
potential transportation market reforms for achieving
economic, social and
environmental objectives. It identifies transport
considers their justifications, and describes
strategies that could reduce
these distortions. Three state-level reform
packages are assessed in terms of
their impacts on vehicle travel,
emissions, congestion, consumer expenses,
tax revenue and equity. This
analysis indicates that such reforms can help
solve a variety of problems.
The incremental benefits of these reforms are
estimated to be far greater
than their incremental costs.
let us know if you have transport policy papers that you would like
posted at our website.
continue to add links to other useful websites. Please add a link to us
your organization's website and we will reciprocate.
Please let us know if you have
comments or questions about any information
in this newsletter, or if you
would like to be removed from our mailing
list. And please pass this
newsletter on to others who may find it
Todd Litman, Director
Transport Policy Institute
"Efficiency - Equity - Clarity"
Victoria, BC, V8V 3R7, Canada
Phone & Fax: