True albinos completely lack all pigments; leucistic
individuals lack some but not all pigments. Albinism
is always hereditary. Leucism may be hereditary or
environmentally induced (usually related to diet).
Many years ago I collected the classic texts on
plumage abnormalities in birds (see citations below).
If there are any recent comprehensive reviews, please
let me know.
Buckley, P. A. 1982. Avian genetics. Pp. 21-110 in M.
Petrak (ed.), Diseases of cage and aviary birds, 2nd
ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia. [pp. 65-74 discuss
Deane, R. 1876. Albinism and melanism among North
American birds. Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological
Gross, A. O. 1965. Melanism in North American birds.
Gross, A. O. 1965. The incidence of albinism in North
American birds. Bird-Banding 36:67-71.
Hailman, J. P. 1984. On describing color abnormalities
in birds. Florida Field Naturalist 12:36-38.
Harrison, C. J. O. 1963. Non-melanic, carotenistic and
allied variant plumages in birds. Bulletin of the
British Ornithologists' Club 83:90-96.
Harrison, C. J. O. 1963. Grey and fawn variant
plumages. Bird Study 10:219-233.
Rollin, N. 1962. Abnormal white, yellow and fawn
plumages. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club
Rollin, N. 1964. Non-hereditary and hereditary
abnormal plumage. Bird Research 2:1-44.
Ross, C. C. 1963. Albinism among North American birds.
Ross, C. C. 1973. Some additional records of albinism
in North American birds. Cassinia 54:18-19.
Sage, B. L. 1962. Albinism and melanism in birds.
British Birds 55:201-225.
Sage, B. L. 1962. The incidence of albinism and
melanism in British birds. British Birds 56:409-416.
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