It is difficult to transliterate words when not using
Slavic diacritical marks, but everyone seems to be guessing
the word meanings correctly and not using diacritics.
Before WW I, there was no Slovenija.
Its later territory was part of the Austrian Empire, so
German was often used in vital records.
Croatia was under Hungarian rule, also as part of the
German was also used there for records until about 1880.
The records had greater linguistic diversity than for most
other geographic regions.
Latin, Croatian, Slovene, Serbian, German, Hungarian, or
Italian were possible languages used.
Ledig means 'unmarried' in German.
gest. : gestorben d. : died, deceased (German)
Lebensjahr year of one's life (German)
im 62 Lebensjahr at the age of 62
rôjstni dan ni kraj (Slovenian)
[ leto year (Sl) metai (Lith) rok (P) rok (Sv) godine (SC) ]
priimek, imé, stán, véra (Slovenian)
surname, name, class,status faith
unréti za rakom (Slovenian)
to die of cancer
opómba remark,comment (Slovenian)
poséstnik(ov) owner's, proprietor's (Slovenian)
Although Jozefa can mean Josephine in Slovene, you can be led
astray when grammatical case is used in Slavic languages.
For example, 'dcera Josefa Polácha' means daughter of Joseph Polach
and not a woman's name.
How much land a farmer owned pretty much determined his class or
status in all the Slavic lands.
Since so many different languages are being used at SLOVAK-ROOTS
will use a Czech example which is still applicable.
To the end of the 19th century the rural population in middle Europe
was stratified in several categories.
In process of colonization of the country the area of an established
village with all fields, forests and meadows was divided into basic
economic units, called in Czech LAN (German: HUFE, HUBE, Lat. LANEUS,
MANSUS, Eng. VIRGATA, YARDLAND).
The LAN represented so much agricultural soil that can be cultivated
by a couple of oxen and can offer a sufficient living for a medium
Very roughly we may say that one LAN was 30 - 45 acres (in Czech
in German the same: MORGEN) ONE JITRO is an area that can be plowed
within one day
(originally within the MORNING which was the period between daybreak
A) Thus at the origin one LAN was owned by one farmer's family. This
was the top stratum of village population.
The Czech equivalents for a farmer are:
SEDLAK, ROLNIK, LANIK , the German equivalents:
BAUER, HUFNER, LAHNER.
B) Later, when the population increased and newcomers came to the
village, the land had to be re-divided and partly sold. The original
farmer's sons started to farm on a portion of the original LAN.
So, a subcategory of farmers came into existence:
Czech: PULNIK, POLOLANIK (pul, polo = one half)
German:HALBHUFNER, HALBLAHNER, HALBBAUER
CTVRTNIK, CTVRTLANIK (ctvrt= a quarter) resp. VEIRTELBAUER,
C) The middle stratum of the village population were those, who owned
only a small farm, with less than a 1/4 of LAN, upto 15 - 18 acres.
Their name was originally PODSEDNIK or ZAHRADNIK.
Podsednik in German was a HINTERSASSER or in Latin SUBSES.
Zahradnik is from a Czech word ZAHRADA - a garden. So the German
equivalent was GAERTNER.
Later, in 18th and 19th century they were called CHALUPNIK
D) The lower stratum of the population were DOMKAR or BARACNIK. In
German KOTSASSER, KAETNER, HAEUSLER, in English COTTAGER.
They still did have some properties - but only a small cottage and a
piece of yard or garden in front or behind their cottage. In many
cases they rented a piece of land that was in community's possession.
E) Apart of above mentioned farmers in common, there were people
without any property who worked for very low reward on the
farmers´land. They were so called PODRUH in Czech, or INWOHNER,
resp.INMAENNER in German. In English we say FARM LABOURER.
They lived somewhere in a farmer's house, or in a barn or shed.
It is said that the differences between various strata were at least
the same as the gap between the classes of nobility, town-dwellers
and the common people.
And hardly a member of farmer's family was allowed to marry a
daughter of a CHALUPNER or even PODRUH because their status was too