Iranica-L is a Forum Devoted to Discussing All Aspects of the History of Iran from the Earliest Times to the Advent of Islam, covering the Pre-Median epoch, the Median and the Achaemenid Empires, the Period of Iran's Occupation under Alexander III of Macedon, Diadochi, and the Seleucids, the Kingdom of Persis, the Parthian and the Sasanian Empires, the Elamite and Characenean Kingdoms, etc. These include topics pertaining to the Political History of Ancient Iran, Numismatics, Archaeology, Art, Ethnology, Religion, Epigraphy, Philology and related issues. Discussion of current political and religious affairs are not permitted on this List.
The above image illustrates the trilingual monument of Darius I the Great (522-486 B.C.) at Behistun (the ancient Bagastāna, "place of the gods"), near Hamadan, Iran, celebrating his victories after 19 battles during 522-520 B.C. with the attendant capture of 9 usurpers. Darius ascended the Achaemenid throne after the death of Cambyses II (529-522 B.C.), son and successor of Cyrus II the Great (559-529 B.C.). But he had to eliminate a number of pretenders and rebels in "one and the same year" (in fact 1 "year", 1 month and 12 days) at the outset of his reign.